Cyclic Model Of Perception

See CONSTRUCTIVIST THEORY OF PERCEPTION.

CYCLOPEAN EYE. This speculation originally referred to a supposed/hypothetical structure in the brain where the retinal images from both eyes are combined. Historically, the French philosopher Rene Descartes (1596-1650) asserted, erroneously, that such an entity resides in the pineal gland (because that structure is located in the center of the head); the German physiologist/physicist Hermann L. F. von Helmholtz (1821-1894) named the hypothetical structure the Cyclopean eye after the Greek mythological figure of the Cyclops, a member of a family of giants, who had a single round eye in the middle of its forehead; and, most recently, the Canadian-born American neurophysiologist David H. Hubel (1926-) and the Swedish neurobiologist Torsten N. Wiesel (1924- ) located a region in the brain, containing the binocular cells/neurons of the visual cortex (approximately half the neurons in the primary visual cortex are binocular), where such retinal images combine to give one the sensation or experience of a single stereoscopic/three-dimensional depth perception. See also HOROPTER THEORY; PANUM PHENOMENON/EFFECT. REFERENCES

Hubel, D. H., & Wiesel, T. N. (1959). Receptive fields of single neurones in the cat's striate cortex. Journal of Physiology, 148, 574-591. Hubel, D. H., & Wiesel, T. N. (2000). Receptive fields and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex. In S. Yantis (Ed.), Visual perception: Essential readings. New York: Psychology Press.

CYNICS, LAW OF. See MURPHY'S LAWS.

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