Defensive Techniques Theory

See GOOD BREAST/OBJECT AND BAD BREAST/OBJECT THEORY.

DEFINITIONAL THEORY. See CONCEPT LEARNING AND CONCEPT FORMATION, THEORIES OF; PROTOTYPE THEORY.

DEGENERACY THEORY. See SEXUAL ORIENTATION THEORIES.

DEGENERACY THEORY OF GENIUS. See LOMBROSIAN THEORY.

DEGRADATION, LAW OF. See WEBER'S LAW.

DEGREES OF CONSCIOUSNESS THEORY. See HERBART'S DOCTRINE OF APPERCEPTION.

DEINDIVIDUATION THEORY. The term deindividuation refers to the loss of one's sense of individuality during which the person behaves with little or no reference to personal internal values or standards of conduct. Dein-dividuated states are characterized as pleasurable wherein the person feels free to act on impulse and without regard to consequences. However, they can also be extremely dangerous in that they can result in violent and antisocial behavior. In the late 1800s, the French sociologist Gustave LeBon (1841-1931) postulated the phenomenon of a group mind and asserted that people in a crowd may lose their sense of personal responsibility and behave as if governed by a primitive, irrational, and hedonistic mind that seems to belong more to the group as a whole than to any one individual [cf., shared autism theory - holds that members of groups may have shared beliefs ("delusions") that have no foundation or validity in reality]. Thus, the state of deindividua-tion seems to be brought on by a combination of "reduced accountability" that comes from being a relatively anonymous member of a crowd and "shifting attention" away from the self and toward the highly arousing external stimulation associated with the mob's actions. Various theoretical approaches have been developed concerning the phenomenon of deindividuation. Festinger, Pepitone, and Newcomb (1952) suggest that the person's focus on the group (which is associated with their attraction to the group) lessens the attention given to individuals. Thus, the members of the group are deindividuated by their submergence and moral subordination to the group. Therefore, according to this view, deindividuation lowers the person's inhibi tions toward exercising counternormative actions. In another viewpoint, R. C. Ziller argues that persons learn to associate indi-viduation with rewarding conditions and dein-dividuation with potentially punishing conditions. Thus, whenever the person expects punishment, there will be tendency to diffuse responsibility by submerging oneself into a group, whereas when one learns to expect rewards for jobs well done, she or he wants to appear uniquely and solely responsible for such behaviors. P. G. Zimbardo's deindividua-tion theory postulates that the expression of normally inhibited behavior may include creative and loving behavior as well as negative or counternormative behaviors. Zimbardo proposes that a number of factors may lead to deindividuation, in addition to focus on the group and avoidance of negative evaluation of moral responsibility: anonymity, group size, level of emotional arousal, altered time perspectives, novelty/ambiguity of the situation, and degree of involvement in group functioning. Such factors lead to a loss of identity or a loss of self-consciousness which, in turn, causes the person to become unresponsive to external stimuli and to lose cognitive control over motivations and emotions. Consequently, the deindividuated person becomes less compliant to positive or negative sanctions imposed from influences outside the group. E. Diener's theoretical approach emphasizes the association of deindividuation with self-awareness: deindividuated persons do not attend to their own behavior, and lack awareness of themselves as entities distinct from the group. With such little awareness of self, the individual is more likely to respond to immediate stimuli, motives, and emotions. According to Diener, the term deindividuation is a construct referring to a set of circumstances or relationships among emotional states, cognitive processes, situations, and behavioral reactions. In such circumstances, various antinormative behaviors - such as drug abuse, riots, lynchings, mob violence, and even reactions involving loss of inhibition in marathon, encounter, and other noncognitive therapy groups - are associated with a state of deindi-viduation. See also ALLPORT'S CONFORMITY HYPOTHESIS; ASCH CONFORMITY EFFECT; BYSTANDER INTER-

VENTION EFFECT; DECISION-MAKING THEORIES; SELF-CONCEPT THEORY; SOCIAL IMPACT, LAW OF. REFERENCES

LeBon, G. (1896). The crowd: A study of the popular mind. London: E. Benn. Festinger, L., Pepitone, A., & Newcomb, T.

(1952). Some consequences of deindividuation in a group. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 47, 382-389. Ziller, R. C. (1964). Individuation and socialization. Human Relations, 17, 341360.

Some aspects of deindividuation and conformity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1, 356-378. Zimbardo, P. G. (1970). The human choice: Individuation, reason, and order versus deindividuation, impulse, and chaos. In W. Arnold & D. Levine (Eds.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Diener, E. (1980). Deindividuation: The absence of self-awareness and self-regulation in group members. In P. Paulus (Ed.), The psychology of group influence. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

DE JONG'S LAW. See TOTAL TIME HYPOTHESIS/LAW.

DELAY OF GRATIFICATION HYPOTHESIS. This hypothesis states that individuals may renounce, or choose to delay, immediate satisfaction or reward in order to obtain a larger reward or gratification on some future occasion. For example, a child may choose to delay her present response that would be instrumental in achieving a small toy now in favor of obtaining a larger toy that is promised to her for responding at a later time; also, an adult may choose to invest his money now and reap a larger benefit later, instead of spending the money immediately. See also MOTIVATION, THEORIES OF; REINFORCEMENT THEORY.

Drug Addiction

Drug Addiction

If you're wanting to learn about drug addiction... Then this may be the most important letter you'll ever read You Are Going To Get A In Depth Look At One Of The Most Noteworthy Guides On Drug Addiction There Is Available On The Market Today. It Doesn't Matter If You Are Just For The First Time Looking For Answers On Drug Addiction, This Guide Will Get You On The Right Track.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment