Determinism Doctrinetheory

OF. The doctrine of determinism assumes that every event has causes, and is the theory or working principle according to which all phenomena are considered as necessary consequents of antecedent conditions (cf., architectural determinism - the notion that building design affects behavior, for instance, some building designs increase the possibility that people will congregate and meet with each other; moral determinism - the doctrine that the world is basically good because God made it so; and moral nihilism - the doctrine that there are no reasons for morals and that absolute pleasure at the expense of others is justified). The concept of determinism is central to science because it maintains that if one knew all the factors involved in a forthcoming event, it could be predicted exactly. Determinism implies a chain of events, each following the other, to produce a necessary conclusion where every thing and every event in the world (and the universe) is the result of natural laws that can be ascertained by the use of the scientific methods. A distinction is made often between hard determinism (or "no-mological" laws, not allowing room for freedom of choice or indeterminism) and soft determinism (that is, attempts to reconcile determinism and free choice or indetermin-ism). For instance, concerning hard determinism, in classical mechanics in physics, it was assumed that if one knew the position and momentum of every particle of matter at one instant in time, then one could know its position and momentum at any other point in future time. This viewpoint, however, was "softened" somewhat with the development of quantum mechanics, where the levels of cause and effect are probabilistic in nature and which, consequently, shift the idea of perfect ("hard") prediction to probabilistic ("soft") prediction. In psychology, the issue of determinism generally revolves around the humanist's and existentialist's advocacy of "free will." However, if one wishes to study behavior and the mind in scientific terms, it must be assumed that there are deterministic and cause-effect relationships to take into serious consideration. Scientific psychology assumes a degree of determinism in behavior where three categories of determinants are studied, usually, as they interact to influence behavior: biological factors (includes heredity, bodily constitution, and physiological health and disease), psychological factors (includes emotions, drives, attitudes, learning experiences, and conscious and unconscious conflicts), and social/cultural factors (includes economic status, customs and mores, social status, and social conflicts). Deterministic relationships, or laws, are discovered in various ways. For example, the early Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) first observed a phenomenon and then followed up by thinking about the event, classifying it, and putting it into a category so that predictions could be made (cf., doctrine of ethical determinism - a philosophical doctrine advanced by Socrates, but opposed by Aristotle, which suggests that humans will seek out automatically the good if they know that is "good"). Many methods of basic scientific inquiry are available, including observation, interpretation, conclusions, and hypotheses-testing, but they all depend on the fundamental notion of deterministic causality [cf., psychical determinism doctrine - the assumption made by psychologists that no psychological phenomena (including dreams, parapraxes, and symptoms; e.g., Freud, 1901) occur by chance, but they always have definite causes; on the other hand, Carl Jung (1953/1965) asserts that no psychological fact can ever be explained in terms of causality alone; and the doctrine of particularism - states that any human behavior needs to be understood in the context of that person's total history, including both heredity and environment]. The doctrine of dialectical materialism (i.e., the speculation that the ulti mate reality is matter, which exists objectively and independently of mind or perception) developed by the German social theorist and philosopher Karl Marx (1818-1883), in the field of political science, is also in the deterministic tradition. Recent events in the field of physics, however, have modulated the scientific regnancy of determinism. In particular, it appears to be highly uncertain or impossible to determine, at the same time, the momentum of an electron particle as well as its position. The German theoretical physicist Werner Karl Heisenberg (1901-1976) came to this conclusion in 1927, which has come to be known today as Heisenberg's principle of uncertainty or the Heisenberg indeterminacy principle, and demonstrates that Newtonian physics does not apply at the level of analysis of atoms. In translating this principle to psychology, if one views an individual person as the equivalent of an atom, it is true that determinacy holds for the human species (which leads to deterministic nomothetic laws), but it is true, also, that indeterminacy holds for the human individual, whose "free will" behavior is only partially explainable in terms of antecedent events and, in which case, it makes it impossible to predict the individual's behavior at any given moment with complete accuracy (cf., Penrose, 1989, 1994). The theory of inde-terminism means that one can act in relative independence of given stimuli and that the individual has freedom of choice or "free will." The laws of most societies, and the dogmas of many religions, are based on the ideas of individual responsibility and free will where the consequences of punishment, whether on earth or in heaven, are justified regarding a person's moral judgments and behavior. Psychologists appear to take a number of positions on the issue of determinism versus indeterminism, where rigid behavior-ists tend to be strict determinists, and humanistic existentialists tend to be indeterminists, even though most psychologists seem to straddle the fence by asserting the necessity of determinism as part of scientific methodology, on one hand and, on the other hand, operating pragmatically day in and day out in terms of indeterminism. See also BEHAVIORIST THEORY; EXISTENTIAL ANALYSIS THEORY; FREUD'S THEORY OF PER

SONALITY; IDIOGRAPHIC AND NOMOTHETIC LAWS; MECHANISTIC THEORY; MIND/MENTAL STATES, THEORIES OF; NEURAL QUANTUM THEORY. REFERENCES

Marx, K. (1867-1879). Capital: A critique of political economy. Chicago: Kerr. Freud, S. (1901). The psychopathology of everyday life. In The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud. London: Hogarth Press. Hutchins, R. (Ed.) (1952). Aristotle's Physics.

In Great books of the Western world. Vol. 8. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica. Jung, C. G. (1953/1965). The collected works of C. G. Jung. Vol. 6. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Heisenberg, W. (1958). The physicist's conception of nature. New York: Har-court, Brace. Penrose, R. (1989). The emperor's new mind: concerning computers, minds, and the laws of physics. New York: Oxford University Press. Penrose, R. (1994). Shadows of the mind: A search for the missing science of consciousness. New York: Oxford University Press.

DEUTSCH'S CRUDE LAW OF SOCIAL RELATIONS/RESOLUTIONS. In research on conflict, the American social psychologist Morton Deutsch (1920- ) and his colleagues found that a cooperative process leads to constructive conflict resolution whereas a competitive process leads to destructive conflict. Such findings have been useful to those concerned with the practical management of various types of personal and social conflict, including marital, labor-management, inter-group, and international relations. Deutsch's research on "mixed-motive" situations is generalized into Deutsch's crude law of social relations and resolutions which states that the typical effects of a given social situation tend to induce that social relation. In one case, this law was used to develop a framework for research on distributive justice which indicates that each distributive principle (e.g., equality or equity) has distinctive psychologi cal orientations associated with it where, once induced, these also produce a preference for the related principle. Thus, Deutsch's crude law predicts that the typical aspects or effects of a given social relationship (such as cooperation) tend to instill that relationship in a social situation that is not yet strongly established. For instance, the typical ingredients, elements, or aspects of cooperation - such as trust, honest communication, and resource-sharing - will tend to induce cooperation when such aspects are introduced into a conflict situation whose specific character has not yet been determined. See also CONFLICT, THEORIES OF. REFERENCES

Deutsch, M. (1949). An experimental study of the effects of cooperation and competition. Human Relations, 2, 199232.

Deutsch, M., & Krauss, R. M. (1965). Theories in social psychology. New York: Basic Books. Deutsch, M. (1969). Conflicts: Productive and destructive. Journal of Social Issues, 25, 7-41.

Deutsch, M. (1980). Fifty years of conflict. In L. Festinger (Ed.), Retrospections on social psychology. New York: Oxford University Press. Deutsch, M. (1985). Distributive justice. New

Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Deutsch, M., & Coleman, P. T. (Eds.) (2000).

The handbook of conflict resolution: Theory and practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Aspergers Answers Revealed

Aspergers Answers Revealed

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