Einsteins Theory Of Relativity

See NEWTON'S LAW/PRINCIPLES OF COLOR MIXTURE.

EINSTELLUNG EFFECT. See LEARNED HELPLESSNESS EFFECT; MIND/MENTAL SET, LAW OF; PERCEPTION (II. COMPARATIVE APPRAISAL), THEORIES OF.

EKMAN-FRIESEN THEORY OF EMOTIONS. This current theory of emotions by the American psychologists Paul Ekman (1934- ), William V. Friesen, and their associates, combines a somatic theory of emotions (the somatic nervous system controls many bodily muscles, including facial muscles) with an evolutionary theory of emotions (based on the Darwinian theory which states that some ways of expressing emotions are inborn). The Ekman-Friesen theory argues that there are distinct facial expressions that accompany a number of emotions, including fear, joy, surprise, anger, excitement, scorn, and sadness. When an environmental event occurs, the person's facial muscles react with an emotional expression. The information of how the face is responding is transmitted to the brain, which then labels a specific emotional state. In this way, autonomic arousal may occur either before or after the labeling of an emotion. When it occurs before the labeling process, it may be incorporated into the label and influence the interpretation of the intensity of the emotion. This theory has been proposed to account for emotional behavior across cultures, and Ekman and Friesen found many similarities in the way people from different cultures express specific emotions. However, although such cross-cultural studies demonstrate some degree of universality in emotional expression, research continues to help decide if emotional expression is inborn as the Darwinian evolutionary theory suggests. See also DARWIN'S EVOLUTION THEORY; DARWIN'S THEORY OF EMOTIONS;

EMOTIONS, THEORIES/LAWS OF; FACIAL FEEDBACK HYPOTHESIS; IZARD'S

THEORY OF EMOTIONS; JAMES-LANGE/

LANGE-JAMES THEORY OF EMOTIONS;

PLUTCHIK'S MODEL OF EMOTIONS.

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