Extinction Of Type S Law Of







EYEWITNESS MISINFORMATION EFFECT. = misinformation effect. The American psychologists Elizabeth F. Loftus (1944- ) and John C. Palmer (1954- ) described this phenomenon whereby misleading post-event information may distort recall of an event by an eyewitness. The eyewitness misinformation effect may be caused by the post-event information "overwriting" the original memory, or by the eyewitness becoming confused about the sources of different items of information, without the original memory invariably being impaired [cf., experimentally-induced false memory technique (also called the "Deese/ Roediger-McDermott paradigm") - any re-peatable method/procedure for generating false memories and which creates a powerful "cognitive/memory illusion" causing participants to believe that they can remember experiences, materials, or events that did not actually occur - first reported by the American psychologist James Deese (1921-1999) and later studied by the American psychologists Henry L. Roediger III (1947- ) and Kathleen B. McDermott (1968- )]. E. F. Loftus also describes the so-called "Piaget kidnapping memory" incident which is a classic example of a false memory deriving from the second year of life of the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896-1980), where his nurse fabricated a story about him being kidnapped and Piaget himself developed an elaborate false visual memory over the years of the alleged event. Other related memory concepts in this area are: deferred action - a psychoanalytic term denoting the revision of memories (i.e., "after the event" or memory with "hindsight") to fit in with new experiences and information or the achievement of later developmental stages; reconstructive memory - dynamic memory processes whereby various strategies are used during memory retrieval to rebuild information from memory, and filling in missing elements while attempting to remember material (cf., confabulation - a memory disorder related to amnesia, but involving the fabrication of events, facts, and experiences, either consciously or unconsciously, in order to compensate for memory loss; sometimes called "honest lying"); recovered memory -the recall of some event, usually involving a traumatic experience (such as being sexually abused as a child), retrieved after having been repressed or forgotten for many years; often such recovered memories, unless verified by reliable sources, turn out to be false memories, "pseudomemories," or "pseudomnesia;" constructive memory - memories produced under the influence of prior experience or expectations where existing "schemas" or new information determine how the information is stored in memory; and changed-trace hypothesis - posits that new information can change old information in memory and helps explain the misinformation effect (cf., multiple trace hypothesis which states that new information interferes with, rather than changes, old information). See also APPENDIX A; CONSTRUCTIVISM, THEORIES OF; FORGETTING/MEMORY, THEORIES OF; INTERFERENCE THEORIES OF FORGETTING; SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM MEMORY, THEORIES OF. REFERENCES

Deese, J. (1959). On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 17-22. Loftus, E. F., & Palmer, J. C. (1974). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, 585-589. Loftus, E. F. (1979). Eyewitness testimony.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Roediger, H. L. III, & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 803-814. Wickens, T. D., & Hirshman, E. (2000). False memories and statistical design the ory. Psychological Review, 107, 377-383.

Wells, G. L., & Olson, E. A. (2003). Eyewitness testimony. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 277-295. Watson, J. M., McDermott, K. B., & Balota, D. A. (2004). Attempting to avoid false memories in the Deese/Roe-diger-McDermott paradigm. Memory and Cognition, 32, 135-141.

EYSENCK'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY. The German-born English psychologist Hans Jurgen Eysenck (1916-1997) viewed personality as organized in a hierarchy where types are located at the most general level, traits at the next level (similar to R. B. Cat-tell's source traits), habitual responses at the next level, and specific responses at the bottom of the hierarchy. Eysenck analyzed personality at the type level along the following three dimensions: "extraversion-introversion," "neuroticism-stability," and "normality-psychoticism" by using ratings, situational tests, questionnaires, and physiological measures. For example, a person who scores high on the "psychoticism" dimension tends to be hostile, egocentric, and antisocial, and is generally considered to be "peculiar" by other people. Eysenck developed an innovative aspect of factor analysis called criterion analysis, in which a given factor is adjusted in such a way as to give maximal separation in the analysis to a specific criterion group (e.g., the factor of "neuroticism" may be aligned to differentiate it maximally between a group of nonneurotic persons versus a group of neurotic individuals). Thus, the use of the technique of factor analysis (cf., Cattell's personality theory) within an articulated theoretical framework is characteristic of Eysenck's approach to personality study. There is a duality to Eysenck's personality theory: (1) theory of personality structure, consisting of the extra-version-intro-version, neuroticism, and psy-choticism dimensions, where the first two dimensions have been studied most and may be assessed via the Eysenck Personality Inventory; and (2) theory of cause, which proposes that behaviors are caused by characteristic brain functions or other neurophysiological functions. Eysenck's model for the causation of high degrees of neuroticism, for example, holds that the hypothalamus is likely to discharge excessive stimulation into the cerebral cortex and into the autonomic nervous system in such cases, and his model of extraversionintroversion holds that when the balance of inhibition versus excitation of the cortex is disrupted, the behavior of turning outward or turning inward occurs. Eysenck's personality theory and his view of humans are governed by the idea that people are biosocial organisms whose actions are determined equally by biological (genetic, physiological, endocrine) and social (historical, economic, interactional) factors. His insistence on seeing individuals as a product of evolution was regarded by Ey-senck, also, as essential for a proper understanding of people. See also CATTELL'S PERSONALITY THE-ORY; DARWIN'S EVOLUTION THEORY; PERSONALITY THEORIES. REFERENCES

Eysenck, H. J. (1947). Dimensions of personality. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Eysenck, H. J. (1952). The scientific study of personality. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Eysenck, H. J. (1953). The structure of human personality. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Eysenck, H. J. (1955). A dynamic theory of anxiety and hysteria. Journal of Mental Science, 101, 28-51. Cattell, R. B. (1965). The scientific analysis of personality. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books. Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. (1968). Manual for the Eysenck Personality Inventory. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service. Eysenck, H. J. (1969). Personality structure and measurement. San Diego, CA: Knapp.

Cartwright, D. (1979). Theories and models of personality. Dubuque, IA: Brown. Eysenck, H. J. (1979). The conditioning model of neurosis. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2, 155-199. Eysenck, H. J. (1993). Creativity and personality: Suggestions for a theory. Psychological Inquiry, 4, 147-178.

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

The Ultimate Guide To Overcoming Fear And Getting Breakthroughs. Fear is without doubt among the strongest and most influential emotional responses we have, and it may act as both a protective and destructive force depending upon the situation.

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