Firo Theory Of Interpersonal

BEHAVIOR. The American social/educational/personality psychologist William C. Schutz (1958) proposed a "three-dimensional theory of interpersonal behavior" called FIRO ("Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation") that is based on openness and honesty in human relations and which examines the basic notion that every person orients herself or himself in characteristic ways towards other people. FIRO is a formal theory, ranging across three kinds of interpersonal behavior: prior - relations between early interpersonal relations and present ones; present - relations between elements of the present interpersonal situation; and consequent - relations between present interpersonal orientations and other behaviors and attitudes. The theory provides several postulates and derived principles and theorems (e.g., in the postulate of "interpersonal needs," it is stated that every individual has three interpersonal needs: inclusion, control, and affection; in the postulate of "relational continuity," the principles of "constancy" and "identification" are developed; and in the postulate of "group development," the principles of "group integration" and "group resolution" are defined). FIRO states that the compatibility of two or more persons depends on the following factors: their ability to satisfy, reciprocally, each other's interpersonal needs; their complementarity vis-à-vis originating and receiving behavior in each need area; and their similarity with respect to the amount of interchange they desire with other people in each need area. The three-dimensional FIRO theory claims that every interpersonal relation follows the same general developmental sequence: it starts with inclusion behavior, is followed by control behavior and, finally, affection behavior. This cycle may recur, however, when the relation approaches termination; it reverses direction, and investment from the relation is withdrawn in the order: affection, control, and inclusion. Theoretically, according to FIRO, it is possible to predict the course of a relation if one knows the interpersonal orientations of the individual members of the relation as well as the interpersonal description of the circumstances under which they will interact. See also: COMPLEMENTARY NEEDS, THEORY OF; EXCHANGE AND SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY; MACHIAVELLIANISM; SOCIAL COMPARISON/EVALUATION THEORY; SOCIAL FACILITATION THEORY. REFERENCES

Schutz, W. C. (1958). FIRO: A three-dimensional theory of interpersonal behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Macrosson, W., & Semple, J. (2001). FIRO-B, Machiavellianism, and teams. Psy-chologicalReports, 88, 1187-1193.


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