Fraternal Birth Order Effect



FREQUENCY, LAW OF. A correlate of the law of use, the law of frequency attempted to explain that exercise - up to a certain physio logical limit - is cumulative in effect, and if one response strengthens the connection somewhat, then two responses have a greater effect than one, and so on. The law of frequency, also known as the law of repetition, states that, other things being equal, the more frequently a connection has been exercised, the stronger the connection and the more resistant it is to extinction. The concept of frequency, as an important factor in experimental psychology and learning, has been traced back formally to 1820 and to the British school of association psychologists, in particular to the Scottish meta-physician Thomas Brown (1778-1820), who maintained that there are three primary laws of association (Aristotle's laws of similarity, contrast, and contiguity in time and space). Additionally, Brown formulated several secondary laws (or as he called them, laws of suggestion): duration, liveliness/vividness, and frequency. From his simpler instances of "suggestion," Brown distinguished relative "suggestions," such as resemblance, difference, and proportion, which anticipated the acknowledgement by future psychologists that mere association does not account for all cognitions; relative "suggestions" supplemented the modulating effect of the secondary laws on the primary ones. Modern learning experiments explore the effects on learning of the very aspects hypothesized by Brown; of Brown's secondary laws of association - a major contribution to the associationistic doctrine - only frequency had been suggested earlier (e.g., by Aristotle). Thus, frequency as a general principle - operating in philosophical and psychological descriptions of individual differences and behavior - formally (via Brown) goes back more than 180 years, if not 2,000 years in an informal (via Aristotle) sense. See also EXERCISE, LAW OF; FRAISSE'S THEORY OF TIME; READINESS, LAW OF; USE, LAW OF.

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

The Ultimate Guide To Overcoming Fear And Getting Breakthroughs. Fear is without doubt among the strongest and most influential emotional responses we have, and it may act as both a protective and destructive force depending upon the situation.

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