Gamma Movement Effect

APPARENT MOVEMENT, PRINCIPLES/ THEORIES OF.

GARCIA EFFECT. The American psychologist John Garcia (1917-1986) and his colleagues conducted extensive work in the area of learning, specifically on classically conditioned taste aversion. The Garcia effect (also called bait-shyness effect, toxicosis effect, flavor-aversion effect, conditioned food/ taste aversion, food avoidance learning /conditioning, taste-aversion effect, and learned taste/flavor aversion), refers to an acquired syndrome in which an organism learns to avoid a particular food because of a conditioned aversion response to its smell or taste. A toxicosis reaction can be formed in a single trial during which consumption of a novel food is followed by nausea and sickness - even when the toxic reaction itself is not experienced for some hours after eating (cf., cheese effect - acute attack of hypertension in a person taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor drug who eats cheese, caused by an inter action of the drug with tyrosine in the cheese; other substances producing this effect include red wine, pickled herring, and yeast extract; and sauce Bearnaise effect - refers to a single-trial learning response involving an association to a highly specific stimulus and a delayed negative consequence based on an analogy to becoming sick some hours after a meal that included sauce Bearnaise and, regardless of the cause of the illness, the sauce becomes identified with the aversive episode). Specifically, laboratory rats quickly acquire an aversion to a sweet-tasting liquid when it is followed by an injection that makes them ill, but they do not readily acquire an aversion to the sweet taste when it is followed by an electric shock. In contrast, rats learn to avoid a light/noise stimulus combination when it is paired with shock but not when it is followed by a nausea-inducing injection. These findings indicate that classical conditioning cannot be established equally well for all stimuli. The key to conditioning in these types of studies is that the original association must be with an internal, digestively-linked stimulus (either the smell or taste of the food substance), and the aversive outcome must be associated with alimentary function such as nausea. The Garcia effect is a particularly interesting phenomenon because it can be formed over such a long interval of time, whereas in all other forms of classical conditioning the optimal interval between the operative stimuli is approximately only a half a second. See also GUSTATION/TASTE, THEORIES OF; OL-FACTION/SMELL, THEORIES OF; PAV-LOVIAN CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES/ LAWS.

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Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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