Granular Theory See Life Theories Of

GRAPHOLOGY, THEORY OF. The theoretical relationship between the features of one's handwriting and his/her personality or character has been studied extensively in modern times by the French abbot Jean Hippolyte Michon (1806-1881) and by the German philosopher/psychologist Ludwig Klages (1872-1956). Based on analyses of the characteristics and variables in personal handwriting - such as modulations in size of letters, layout, connectedness, slant, regularity, speed, forms, shading, and angularity - graphologists (those who analyze the physical features and patterns of handwriting and who formulate graphology theory) have speculated on persons' traits, qualities, and attributes. Some graphologists use the "analytic" approach, in which relatively isolated aspects of the handwriting (e.g., curvature, angularity, width, slant of individual letters) are presumed indicators of specific personality traits of the writer. Other graphologists assert that personality characteristics are reflected only by the "patterns" of isolated elements of the writer's script. Scientific attempts to relate a number of such variables of handwriting to objective measures/scores on personality inventories and tests, however, have produced only weak and unstable correlations and conclusions. Perhaps, it is fair to say that most scientists generally regard graphology as a "pseudoscience" and, in psychology in particular, it falls in an area called pseudopsychology that includes other "scientifically-suspect" areas of investigation, such as astrology, numerology, color preference, phrenology, physiognomy, palmistry, "cold reading," parapsychology, demonol-ogy/witchcraft, and some orientations toward dream analysis. Apparently, the value of graphology theory and the validity of graphologi-cal/handwriting analyses depends on the examiner and not on the procedure itself. See also ASTROLOGY, THEORY OF; BAR-NUM EFFECT; PERSONALITY THEORIES; PSEUDOSCIENTIFIC/UNCON-VENTIONAL THEORIES. REFERENCES

Michon, J. H. (1875/1944). Systeme de graphologie. Paris: Payot. Klages, L. (1910). Die principien der charak-

terologie. Leipzig: Barth. Klages, L. (1916). Handschrift und charkter. Leipzig: Barth.

GRASSMANN'S LAWS. This is a set of principles concerning the normal visual system summarized by the German-Polish physicist/mathematician Hermann Gunther Grassmann (1809-1877), and was foreshadowed by Isaac Newton's (1642-1727) laws of color mixture. The basic assumption of Grassman's laws is that if a light composed of known amounts of three primary color components is equivalent in color to another light, the three known amounts may be used as a color specification for this light. Such amounts are called tristimulus values of the color. Grassmann's laws state the following: when equivalent lights are added to equivalent lights, the sums are equivalent also; when equivalent lights are subtracted from equivalent lights, the differences are equivalent also; and lights equivalent to the same light are equivalent to each other. Thus, Grassmann's laws indicate relationships among the three primary colors that follow algebra-like rules under conditions where a person matches colors by adjusting the amounts of each of the three primary colors needed to match perceptually ("subjective equivalence") a test color. The term color equation describes the conditions and results of such a color-matching task. The principles expressed in Grassmann's laws have been established by numerous experiments conducted over a wide range of retinal illuminance for all kinds of vision, both normal and abnormal. However, the principles tend to weaken for very high retinal illuminance and for illuminance conditions of 10 minutes or more where retinal rod vision is initiated. Between these two extremes, Grassmann's laws hold independent of the particular adaptive state of the viewer's eye. In a completely different context, in the area of linguistics, however, Grassmann's law refers to a modification of Grimm's law [named after the German philologist Jakob L. K. Grimm (17851863) who proposed in 1822 that various shifts occur in the pronunciation of certain consonants between different languages] in 1863 which asserts that a sequence of two audible breath/ speech sounds in a word is sufficient to block the "sound shift" phenomenon of consonants expressed in Grimm's law. See also COLOR MIXTURE, LAWS/THEORY OF; COLOR VISION, THEORIES OF; NEWTON'S

LAWS/PRINCIPLES OF COLOR MIXTURE.

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