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GRUNER'S GAME THEORY OF HUMOR. The theoretical proposition advanced by the American humor researcher Charles R. Gruner (1931- ) is that all humor - including, in particular, "puns" (which involves the game of "word play") - is actually a disguised succession of games that are there to be won. The very notion of games implies fun, leisure, entertainment, recreation, and affable human interaction, but it also implies, according to Gruner's game theory of humor, a sort of competition, a kind of score-keeping, and a winner/loser outcome. Gruner observes that the Greeks used the word "paronomasia" (i.e., "equal word") for what is today called a "pun." Three major kinds of puns are the homograph (i.e., "same writing;" e.g., "How did Samson die? From fallen arches"), the homophone (i.e., "same sound;" e.g., "The man with a squeaking shoe became a songwriter because he had music in his sole"), and the double-sound pun (i.e., "punning on a pun;" e.g., "Get thee to a punnery"). Gruner argues that the modern pun descended from the conundrum (i.e., "punning riddle") that, in turn, descended from the ancient common riddle. Thus, in Gruner's view - with the exception of good-natured play - humor is rarely as "innocent" as it first appears, but it is consistent with accounts based on the traditional superiority theory of humor where there are adversaries, triumphs, victories, winners, losers, and implicit "self-others" comparisons. See also HOBBES' THEORY OF HUMOR/ LAUGHTER; HUMOR, THEORIES OF; SUPERIORITY THEORIES OF HUMOR. REFERENCES

Gruner, C. R. (1978). Understanding laughter: The workings of wit and humor. Chicago: Nelson Hall. Gruner, C. R. (1997). The game of humor: A comprehensive theory of why we laugh. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

G-SPOT OR GRAEFENBERG SPOT/EFFECT. = Grafenberg spot. The German gynecologist, and developer of the intrauterine device (IUD), Ernst Graefenberg (1881-1957) described an erotically sensitive area presumably located in the anterior wall of the woman's vagina and, supposedly, when the area is stimulated, the woman more easily releases female ejaculate and/or achieves orgasm. The G-spot is usually located about halfway between the back of the pubic bone and the cervix, along the course of the urethra and near the neck of the bladder. It swells when it is stimulated, although it is difficult to palpate when in an unstimulated state. In 1981, the G-spot was named by John Perry and Beverly Whipple to commemorate the research of Graefenberg who - in 1944, along with Robert L. Dickinson - described a zone of erogenous feeling located along the subure-thral surface of the anterior vaginal wall. Although Graefenberg and others had written about this phenomenon/effect, it was virtually ignored until Perry and Whipple gave renewed attention to it. Initially, Graefenberg benefited from the much earlier work in the 1600s of the Dutch physician/anatomist Regnier de Graaf (1641-1673) who referred to such an area/spot and its effects. The G-spot is not felt normally during a gynecological exam, because the area must be sexually stimulated in order for it to swell and be palpable; physicians, of course, do not sexually arouse their patients and, therefore, do not typically find the woman's G-spot. In the final analysis, however, despite the evidence that specific anatomical structures correspond to the area defined as the G-spot, its exact anatomical identity in all women, universally, remains inconclusive. See also SEXUAL ORIENTATION/BEHAVIOR THEORIES. REFERENCES

Graefenberg, E. (1950). The role of the urethra in female orgasms. International Journal of Sexology, 3, 145148.

The G-spot and other recent discoveries about human sexuality. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Alzate, H., & Hoch, Z. (1986). The "G-spot" and "female ejaculation": A current appraisal. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 12, 211-220. Davidson, J. K., Darling, C. A., & Conway-Welch, C. (1989). The role of the Graefenberg spot and female ejaculation in the female orgasmic response: An empirical analysis.

Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 15, 102-120.

GUDDEN'S LAW. In 1870, the German psychiatrist Johan Bernhard Aloys von Gud-den (1824-1886) enunciated this neurological degeneration principle/law which may be stated in several ways, but all carrying the same meaning: in the division of a nerve, degeneration in the proximal portion is toward the nerve cell; the degeneration of the proximal end of a divided nerve is cellulipetal; and lesions of the cerebral cortex do not result in an atrophying of peripheral nerves. See also NEURON/NEURAL/NERVE THEORY. REFERENCE

Gudden, J. B. A. von (1870). Experimentale untesuchungen uber das peripher-ische und centrale nervensystem. Archiv fur Psychiatrie, 2, 1-24.

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