Guyaus Theory Of Time

French social philosopher Jean-Marie Guyau (1854-1888) shifted philosophical attention from time as an a priori feature of the mind (as in Immanuel Kant's approach) to a focus on the actual or empirical development of the concept of time, and to a theoretical view that relates time experience to human information-processing activities. Guyau maintained that time itself does not exist in the universe, but rather that time is a purely mental construction arising from the events that take place, and held that temporal experience is constructed based on the intensity, number, associations of stimuli as well as the attention paid to the stimuli, the extent of the differences between the stimuli, and the expectations called up by the stimuli. According to Guyau, acquiring the idea of time is an important functional adaptation to one's environment, and is the result of a long process of evolution in a social context. In support of this theory, Guyau specifies five mechanisms that allow the individual to achieve the memory organization that is requisite to temporal appreciation: schema formation, matching, spatial analogy, chunking, and narrative closure. Guyau's theory of time holds that with more "images," and more changes and more mental content, the experience of "duration" is lengthened. In this sense, Guyau regarded time not as an a priori condition, but as a consequence of one's experience of the world, and the result of a long evolutionary history. According to Guyau, time essentially is a product of human imagination, memory, and will. Also, in Guyau's view, even though one may use time and space to measure each other, nevertheless they are distinct ideas with their own characteristics; the idea of space originally developed before the idea of time. Guyau suggested that the idea of time arose when humans became conscious of their reactions toward pleasure and pain, and of the succession of muscular sensations associated with such reactions. Thus, Guyau held that the original source of the human idea of time is an accumulation of sensations that produces an internal perspective directed towards the future. See also FRAISSE'S THEORY OF TIME; MICHON'S MODEL OF TIME; ORNSTEIN'S THEORY OF TIME; TIME, THEORIES OF. REFERENCES

Guyau, J.-M. (1890). La genese de l'idee de temps. Paris: Alcan.

Guyau and the idea of time. Amsterdam, Netherlands: North-Holland.

Brain Training Improving Your Memory

Brain Training Improving Your Memory

For as much as we believe we train our brains and give them a good workout, we seldom actually do it on a regular basis. In most cases, our brains are not used in a balanced way. We're creatures of habit. We find a way to do things that we consider comfortable and we seldom change our ways.

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