Hamiltons Principle Of Least Actionlaw Of Least Resistance

See GESTALT THEORY/LAWS.

HANDEDNESS. See LATERALITY THEORIES; RIGHT-SHIFT THEORY.

HARD/SOFT DETERMINISM, DOCTRINE OF. See DETERMINISM, DOCTRINE/THEORY OF.

HARD-TO-GET EFFECT. See RECIPROCITY OF LIKING EFFECT.

HARDY-WEINBERG LAW. The English mathematician Godfrey H. Hardy (1877-1947) and the German physician Wilhelm Weinberg (1862-1937) independently formulated that principle in 1908. The Hardy-Weinberg law of population genetics states that the relative gene frequencies in a population remain stable from generation to generation under the conditions that mating occurs randomly and that selection, migration, and mutation do not occur. In other words, the Hardy-Weinberg law does not apply under five conditions: mutation, gene migration, genetic drift, nonrandom mating, and natural selection. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium [also called a balanced polymorphism, and the Castle-Hardy-Wein-berg equilibrium, named after The American biologist William Ernest Castle (1867-1962)] or genetic equilibrium states that if two individuals - who are heterozygous (e.g., Bb) for a trait - are mated, it is found that 25-percent of their offspring are homozygous for the dominant allele (BB), 50-percent are heterozygous like their parents (Bb) and 25-percent are ho-mozygous for the recessive allele (bb) and, thus, unlike their parents, express the recessive phenotype. Related terms in the area of population genetics include: the founder effect - the tendency for an isolated offshoot of a population to develop genetic differences from the parent population due to the distribution of "alleles" or "allelomorphs" (one of two or more alternative versions of a gene that can occupy a particular place on a chromosome where each is responsible for a different characteristic) in its founder members, not being perfectly representative of the distribution in the parent population; and genetic drift effect (also called random drift and non-Darwinian evolution) - the change in the relative frequencies of genes in a population resulting from neutral mutation, but not from natural selec tion. See also DARWIN'S EVOLUTION THEORY; EUGENICS, DOCTRINE OF; GALTON'S LAWS; MENDEL'S LAWS/PRINCIPLES; WEISMANN'S THEORY.

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