Heisenberg S Principle Of Uncertaintyindeterminacy

DETERMINISM, DOCTRINE/THEORY OF.

HELIOCENTRIC THEORY. See SELF-CONCEPT THEORY.

HELLIN'S LAW. See PROBABILITY THEORY/LAWS.

HELMHOLTZ CHESSBOARD ILLUSION. See APPENDIX A.

HELMHOLTZ ILLUSION AND IRRADIATION ILLUSION. See APPENDIX A.

HELMHOLTZ'S COLOR VISION THEORY. See YOUNG-HELMHOLTZ COLOR VISION THEORY.

HELMHOLTZ'S LIKELIHOOD PRINCIPLE. See CONSTRUCTIVIST THEORY OF PERCEPTION.

HELMHOLTZ'S THEORY OF ACCOMMODATION. See YOUNG-HELM-HOLTZ COLOR VISION THEORY.

HELMHOLTZ'S THEORY OF HEARING. See AUDITION/HEARING, THEORIES OF.

HELPING BEHAVIOR. See BYSTANDER INTERVENTION EFFECT.

HELPLESSNESS/HOPELESSNESS THEORY OF DEPRESSION. See DEPRESSION, THEORIES OF.

HELSON'S ADAPTATION-LEVEL THEORY. = AL theory = adaption-level theory = adaptation-level affect/phenomenon = context effect. The American psychologist Harry Hel-son (1898-1977) developed this psychological and perceptual theory, which postulates a momentary state and subjective evaluation of the individual in which stimuli are judged to be indifferent or neutral on any given attribute. Stimuli above this point of subjective equality have specific features and those below this point have complementary qualities. As an example, when one goes through the transition in a set of stimuli from pleasant stimuli (e.g., substances having a sweet taste) to unpleasant stimuli (e.g., substances having a sour taste), there is a stimulus (or group of stimuli) that is neutral (i.e., neither pleasant nor unpleasant). This transitional zone, called the adaptation-level (AL), represents the stimuli to which the individual is adapted concerning the particular magnitude, quality, or attributes of those stimuli. Another common example of the operation of AL is where cool water may be made to feel warm if the person first adapts to rather cold water. The AL may be defined operationally as the stimulus value that elicits a neutral response when a person judges a set of stimuli in terms of numerical (quantitative or qualitative) rating scales. Hel-son 's theory of AL attempted to evaluate the variables that affect the neutral zone of stimuli in terms of their background, focal, and residual levels. Because the AL is rarely observed to be at the arithmetic mean (center point) of a stimulus series, the phenomenon of AL has been called decentering. It is an accepted feature of AL that it is a weighted geometric mean consisting of background, focal, and residual stimuli. Background stimuli are "contextual" or "ground" (in the sense of a Gestalt "figure versus ground" relationship); focal stimuli are "attentional" or "figural" (in the sense of Gestalt figure versus ground relationships); and residual stimuli are "extra-situational" stimuli computed from differences between background and focal stimuli. Thus, AL theory maintains that the neutral or adapted background stimuli provide a basis, frame of reference, or standard against which new stimuli are perceived. See also ADAPTATION, PRINCIPLES/LAWS OF; ASSIMILATION-CONTRAST THEORY; CRESPI EFFECT; PERCEPTION (II. COMPARATIVE APPRAISAL), THEORIES OF; WE-BER-FECHNER LAW. REFERENCES

Helson, H. (1947). Adaptation-level as frame of reference for prediction of psychophysical data. American Journal of Psychology, 60, 1-29. Helson, H. (1948). Adaptation-level as a basis for a quantitative theory of frames of reference. Psychological Review, 55, 297-313. Michels, W., & Helson, H. (1949). A reformulation of the Fechner law in terms of adaptation-level applied to rating-scale data. American Journal of Psychology, 62, 355-368. Helson, H. (1964). Adaptation-level theory: An experimental and systematic approach to behavior. New York: Harper & Row.

Corso, J. (1971). Adaptation-level theory and psychophysical scaling. In M. Ap-pley (Ed.), Adaptation-level theory: A symposium. New York: Academic Press.

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Aspergers Answers Revealed

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