Hierarchical Instinct Theory

See McDOUGALL'S HORMIC/INSTINCT THEORY/DOCTRINE.

HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF WORD IDENTIFICATION. Typical hierarchical models of word perception emphasize that identification of a word is mediated by identification of its component letters. In one version of such a hierarchical model (Johnston & McClelland, 1980), evidence and an explanation are offered as to why people are more accurate in perceiving a briefly-presented letter when it appears in a word than when it appears alone (this is called the "word-letter phenomenon" or WLP). This model makes predictions that are consistent with the results of previous studies of WLP, but makes two new predictions: the sizeable WLP obtainable using a vector/visual mask made up of letter features are reduced greatly if the mask consist of complete letters; and the size of the WLP is the same whether or not mask letters spell out a word. Although both of these predictions run counter to the traditional principle in the area of verbal learning (i.e., that interference increases with the similarity of target and mask aspects), experimental results con firm both predictions in conditions that test letter features against word masks. See also INTERACTIVE ACTIVATION MODEL OF LETTER PERCEPTION; INTERFERENCE THEORIES OF FORGETTING; PERCEPTION (I. AND II.), THEORIES OF; TOP-DOWN PROCESSING THEORIES; WORD-SUPERIORITY EFFECT.

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

The Ultimate Guide To Overcoming Fear And Getting Breakthroughs. Fear is without doubt among the strongest and most influential emotional responses we have, and it may act as both a protective and destructive force depending upon the situation.

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