Hormonal Theory Of Hunger

See HUNGER, THEORIES OF.

HORNER'S LAW. See COLOR VISION, THEORIES/LAWS OF.

HORNEY'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY. The German-born American physician and psychiatrist Karen Clementine Danielson Horney (1885-1952) was trained originally in the method of Freudian psychoanalysis/theory but she broke away eventually from the standard Freudian orthodoxy over the issue of female sexuality. Where Freud emphasized the concepts of penis envy, jealousy of the male, libido theory, and feelings of genital inferiority as determinants in the psychology of women, Horney argued that lack of confidence and overemphasis on the love relationship are at the heart of feminine psychology. Horney retained many of the basic Freudian concepts and methods, such as free association, transference, repression, and resistance, but she - like other analysts (e.g., A. Adler, E. Fromm, and H. S. Sullivan) - stressed the importance of environmental and social factors in developing the personality. She also kept the Freudian doctrine of unconscious motivation and psychic determinism. Horney redefined the meaning of the Freudian oedipal complex (it was anxiety that grew out of the parent-child relationship, not a sexual- aggres sive conflict) and aggression (it was security-protection, not an inborn trait). Horney also criticized the Freudian notions of the id, ego, superego, anxiety, masochism, and repetition compulsion. The primary concepts in Hor-ney's personality theory are basic anxiety and idealized image, which are pervasive learned characteristics of the child that result from feeling isolated and helpless in a hostile environment. A powerful drive for parental security and safety arises in the child out of the feeling of basic anxiety; the idealized image is a fictitious, self-deceiving creation of the individual that expresses discontent with one's "real" self. Horney presented a list of ten neurotic (irrational) needs that are acquired as a consequence of trying to find solutions to disturbed human relationship problems. These are neurotic needs for approval and affection, a partner who will take over one's life, restriction of one's life within narrow borders, power, exploitation of others, prestige, personal admiration, personal achievement, self-sufficiency/independence, and perfec-tion/unassailability. According to Horney, the neurotic needs are "insatiable" (the more one gets, the more one wants) and are sources from which inner conflicts develop. Horney classified the neurotic needs under the three orientations/headings of "moving toward people," "moving away from people," and "moving against people." It is these orientations where inner conflict develops. Although the "normal" individual is able to resolve the inner conflicts posed by these orientations concerning others by integrating all three orientations, the "neurotic" person develops and utilizes artificial or irrational solutions (cf., Hor-ney's term shallow living - a neurotic method of dealing with a conflict by immersing oneself in trivial and distracting activities). Such inner conflicts, however, are avoidable and resolvable if the child is reared in a home that has warmth, trust, love, respect, and tolerance of mistakes. Thus, Horney did not feel that conflict is innate, but that it stems from relationships with parents and other social conditions. Horney's theory of personality deals essentially with the dynamics and causes of neurosis. She incorporated into her theory a unique synthesis of some of the formulations and concepts both of Sigmund Freud and Al fred Adler. See also ADLER'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY; FREUD'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY; JUNG'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY; LIBIDO THEORY; PERSONALITY THEORIES. REFERENCES

Freud, S. (1905/1931). Three essays on the theory of sexuality/Female sexuality. In The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud. Vols. 7, 21. London: Hogarth Press. Horney, K. (1937). The neurotic personality of our times. New York: Norton. Horney, K. (1939). New ways in psychoanalysis. New York: Norton. Horney, K. (1950). Neurosis and human growth: The struggle toward self-realization. New York: Norton. Horney, K. (1967). Feminine psychology. New York: Norton.

HORNS EFFECT. See HALO EFFECT.

HOROPTER THEORY. See BERKELEY'S THEORY OF VISUAL SPACE PERCEPTION; PANUM PHENOMENON/EFFECT.

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Responses

  • eino
    What are the theories of hunger?
    2 years ago
  • antonio
    What is hormonal theory?
    1 year ago
  • kelli
    What is hunger theory of sexuality?
    9 months ago

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