I

ICEBERG PRINCIPLE. See DECISIONMAKING THEORIES.

ICEBLOCK THEORY. See LEWIN'S FIELD THEORY.

ICONIC MEMORY/STORE. See SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM MEMORY, THEORIES OF.

IDEALISM, DOCTRINE OF. See REALISM, DOCTRINE OF.

IDEAS, THEORY OF. See ARISTOTLE'S DOCTRINES/THEORIES.

IDENTICAL ELEMENTS AND COMPONENTS THEORY. See ESTES' STIMULUS SAMPLING THEORY; TRANSFER OF TRAINING, THORNDIKE'S THEORY OF.

IDENTICAL VISUAL DIRECTION, LAW

OF. See VISION/SIGHT, THEORIES OF.

IDENTIFIABILITY PRINCIPLE. See

TRANSFER OF TRAINING, THORN-DIKE'S THEORY OF.

IDENTIFICATION THEORY. The Austrian-born psychoanalysts Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and Anna Freud (1895-1982) both described and developed identification theory. In the former case (Sigmund), identification refers to the deliberate adoption of another person's behavior as one's own and, in the jargon of psychoanalysis, it is called a "defense mechanism" (i.e., a psychic guard against anxiety) whereby one unconsciously incorporates the attributes of another person (usually a parental figure) into one's own personality. In the latter case (Anna), the term identification with the aggressor is a "defense mechanism" employed in situations whereby an individual facing an external threat (e.g., disapproval or criticism from a parent or au thority figure) identifies with the source of the threat, either by seizing/embracing the aggression or by adopting other aspects of the threatening figure (e.g., some prisoners in Nazi concentration camps during World War II came to identify with their guards). Psychoanalysts typically argue that the identification mechanism plays an important role in the early development of the "superego" (conscience) before criticism is turned inward at a later stage of psychosexual development. Other theoretical psychoanalytic terms related to identification are: primary identification - a primitive form of identification that occurs during the oral stage of psychosexual development before any other kind of "object-relationship" (i.e., a relationship experienced, or an emotion directed, by the person's ego towards an "instinctual object") is formed; secondary identification - the identification that may occur after the establishment of an initial "object-relationship;" projective identification - according to the Austrian psychoanalyst Melanie Klein (1882-1960), a childish fantasy in which one inserts oneself into an "instinctual object" in order to control, possess, or harm it (e.g., a child's fantasy of invading its mother's body and sadistically attacking it); introjection - according to the Hungarian psychoanalyst Sandor Ferenczi (1873-1933), a defense mechanism whereby an "instinctual object" is symbolically (or in fantasy) absorbed by an individual, or "instinctual energy" is turned inward (e.g., a depressed person may turn aggression back on the self); and incorporation - a defense mechanism whereby an individual mentally ingests/swallows another person; it has an "instinctual goal" that is characteristic of the oral stage of psychosexual development, and it provides a model for the mechanisms of identification and introjection. See also FREUD'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY.

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