Interviewer Biaseffect

COMMUNICATION THEORY.

INTIMACY, PRINCIPLE OF. See GESTALT THEORY/LAWS.

INTRAPSYCHIC THEORIES. See PSY-CHOPATHOLOGY, THEORIES OF; RANK'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY.

INTUITION, THEORIES OF. The phenomenon of intuition refers to a mode of knowing that emphasizes direct and immediate understanding and which occurs without conscious thought or judgment. The following theoretical orientations toward intuition are described by the Canadian psychologist Malcolm R. Westcott (1968; 1984): various philosophical viewpoints are covered by K. W. Wild who provides over two dozen definitions of intuition, including its status as the most primitive mental function (on which all perception and reason depend), its function as the realization of "fundamental truth," its ability demonstrated in some persons for arriving at conclusions without formulation of the premises, its connection to ultimate human values such as goodness, beauty, and truth, its facility of knowing what is beyond proof or demonstration, and its role in reason as that which follows, rather than precedes, rational thought; Wild suggests that intuition should not be viewed as antagonistic to reason, but the two are merely "alien" to each other (cf., Bunge, 1962). Among the psychological conceptions of intuition, and theories of intuition, are the following: in the 19th century, H. von Helm-holtz argued that intuitions are rapid "unconscious inferences" developed from common experiences; in Gestalt theory, the notion was advanced that intuition helps to apprehend events and stimuli as totalities, which was opposed by associationistic theory which argued that totalities are built up or constructed as inferences from separate sensory events; in personality theory, G. W. Allport argued for the "total apprehension" of a personality via intuition, but R. B. Cattell suggested that as an independent method of arriving at psychological knowledge, intuition seems to be "pure illusion;" C. G. Jung presents intuition as one of four basic mental functions (the others are feeling, sensation, and thinking) that all individuals possess, but developed only to greater or lesser degree across people; also, according to Jung's theory, intuition focuses on a nonjudgmental perception of principles, possibilities, and implications at the expense of details, and it may exist in extraverts as well as introverts. Although other psychologists have given accounts of intuition, only the Australian-Jamaican educator Tony Bastick (1982) has attempted to place the concept in a central role in a general theory; Bastick reviews a great variety of definitions and descriptions of intuition from diverse fields, and derives almost two dozen different properties that characterize the process, such as emotional involvement, subjective certainty, empathy, and speed. In his theory of intuition, Bastick argues, also, that intuitive processes are involved in all thought and action; the theory suggests that important/great intuitions occur when there is high initial dissonance in a situation where such a state is resolved by a new combination of "emotional sets," and where the thoughts, feelings, and actions associated with the new "emotional set" constitutes the intuition. In support of his theory of intuition, Bastick integrates research from a wide array of fields/topics such as projective testing, psychophysiology, cognition, personality, and demographic/cultural variables. Such an approach serves to highlight the two broad notions, or theoretical views, of intuition among psychologists: intuition is conceived of as solving problems and making judgments via informal, inexplicit, and/or obscure information processes (cf., intuitive physics - involves assumptions about the motion of objects that are commonly believed but that sometimes violate the established laws of Newtonian mechanics; e.g., dropping an object while walking fast results in the object continuing to move forward, hitting the ground alongside the walker, but most people believe that the object will drop straight down, hitting the ground directly below the point at which it was released); and intuition is conceived of as a cognitive/emotional step that goes beyond judgment, decision-making, or learning to achieve a full appreciation and understanding of a personality, subject matter, or situation, sometimes involving the modification of one's phenomenal field or set. See also ASSOCIATION, LAWS/PRINCIPLES

OF; DISSONANCE THEORY; EMPATHY THEORY; GESTALT THEORY/LAWS; INTUITIVE THEORY OF EMOTIONS; JUNG'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY; PERSONALITY THEORIES; PROBLEMSOLVING AND CREATIVITY STAGE THEORIES; UNCONSCIOUS INFERENCE, DOCTRINE OF. REFERENCES

Jung, C. G. (1921/1976). Psychological types.

Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Allport, G. W. (1929). The study of personality by the intuitive method. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 24, 14-27.

Cattell, R. B. (1937). Measurement versus intuition in applied psychology. Character and Personality, 6, 114131.

Wild, K. W. (1938). Intuition. London: Cambridge University Press. Bunge, M. (1962). Intuition and science.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Westcott, M. R. (1968). Toward a contemporary psychology of intuition. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Bastick, T. (1982). Intuition: How we think and act. Chichestser, UK: Wiley. Westcott, M. R. (1984). Intuition. In R. J.

Corsini (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology. Vol. 2. New York: Wiley. Bastick, T. (2003). Intuition: Evaluating the construct and its impact on creative thinking. New York: Stoneman & Lang.

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