Jungs Theory Of Personality

The Swiss-born psychiatrist/psychoanalyst Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) first met Sigmund Freud in 1907 and was soon named Freud's successor ("my crown prince") by Freud, but by 1914 Jung and Freud parted company - never to see one another again -essentially due to theoretical differences concerning the interpretation of psychoanalysis, the influence of determinism on personality (Freud asserted that personality was basically set or determined in the first few years of childhood; Jung maintained that personality was more malleable and changeable in later life by future goals), and the concepts of libido (Freud stated that it was "sexual energy," whereas Jung regarded it as a generalized "life energy") and unconscious (Freud stated that it was the prime source of motivation with oneway master control over one's conscious thoughts and behavior; Jung partitioned it into the "personal" and "collective" unconscious where life's experiences are progressive and more flexibly selected and guided under their influence; cf., Jung's principle of psychosyn-thesis - the unification of various components of the unconscious, dreams, fantasies, and instincts with the personality; Jung used the term "constructive" as opposed to Freud's term "reductive" in this unification process). Jung's psychic energy theory of personality, psychoanalysis, and therapeutic practice became widely known as analytical psychology, wherein he formulated his unique notions about the myths and symbols that people have used throughout centuries of recorded history (e.g., the term mana denotes a supernatural life force, usually originating from the spirit world and that may be concentrated in other people or objects and inherited/transmitted between people, conferring ritual power or high social status; numinosum - Jung's term for a type of involuntary mystical/religious experience, or dynamic agency/effect, not caused by an arbitrary act of will, whereby the individual is seized and controlled by the force/energy whatever its causes; uroboros -an ancient circular symbol depicting a snake or dragon swallowing its own tail, and represents unity/infinity; this symbol was interpreted by Jung as a metaphor for early development where the infant does not distinguish the feeder from the fed or love from aggression; biological memory - the notion that humans inherently have a memory of the history of the race, a memory that is not typically available to them; and mnemic theory - states that heredity is a form of memory based on inherited "engrams"). The structure of "total personality" (i.e., the mind or psyche) in Jung's theory consists of a number of differentiated, but interacting, systems: the ego or conscious mind; the personal unconscious or repressed, suppressed, ignored, or forgotten experiences that may form "complexes;" and the collective, transpersonal unconscious or storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from one's ancestral past. The notion of indi-viduation is defined by Jung as the process of coming to "selfhood" or the tendencies toward "self-actualization." The theory of the collective unconscious is one of the most original and controversial features of Jung's personality theory (cf., psychoid - Jung's term applied to the collective unconscious, and which cannot be perceived or represented directly, in contrast to the perceptible psychic phenomena; and mediumistic hypothesis - posits that schizophrenics are close to the collective unconscious and, thereby, are in a position to see and accept the course of events and indications of their disintegration). One of the components of the collective unconscious (or "objective psyche") is called archetypes (other names for this component are dominants, primordial images, imagoes, mythological images, and behavior patterns), which are universal ideas that are emotion-laden and create images/visions that correspond allegedly to some aspect of the conscious situation in normal waking life (cf., theory of phylogenesis -refers to the origin and biological development of a species as a whole, but Jung extended this theory within psychology to include the development of the psyche and archetypes; the theory of racial memory/unconscious - holds that people inherit the common body of experiences and memories of all past humans, and that in human consciousness such elements continue from generation to generation; thus, humans not only inherit their physical aspects from their ancestors, but their memories as well). Other components of the collective unconscious are called the persona -the masked or public face of personality; the anima and animus - a bisexual aspect where the feminine archetype in men is the anima, and the masculine archetype in women is the animus (cf. Jung's use of the term syzygy - the juxtaposition of opposites, or a pair of oppo-sites, especially the anima and animus; the term derives from astronomy, in which the Earth and the moon lie in a straight line on opposite sides of the sun; Jung was impressed by the apparent ubiquity of cultural symbols of syzygy, such as the Chinese complementary principles of the universe called "yin" and "yang," or the melding of a man and woman into a "divine couple"); the shadow - the animal instincts that humans have inherited in their evolution from lower life forms and that may be manifested as recognition of original sin, the devil, or an enemy (Jung's term inflation of consciousness refers to the expansion of a person's consciousness beyond its normal limits stemming from identification with an archetype, the persona, or a famous person that results in an exaggerated sense of importance that may be compensated for by feelings of inferiority); and the self - comprising all aspects of the unconscious, it attempts to achieve equilibrium, integration, individua-

tion, self-actualization, and unity, and is expressed in the symbols of the mandala and the circle. According to Jung, the well-adjusted person is one who seeks a compromise between the demands of the collective unconscious and the actualities of the external world. Jung also distinguishes between the extraversion attitude - orientation of the person toward the external/objective world, and the introversion attitude - orientation of the person toward the internal/subjective world. He describes four fundamental psychological types/functions/styles: thinking (ideational), feeling (evaluative), sensing (perceptual), and intuiting (unconscious or subliminal) aspects of processing information in the world [cf., the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator - developed in 1943 and named after the American writer Isabel M. Myers (1897-1980) and her mother, the self-taught American psychologist Katharine E. Briggs (1875-1968), designed to implement/measure Jung's theory of functional types; cf., clouding effect - a tendency for people who are classified as different functional types to have problems understanding each other where, allegedly, women and men differ in their communication "styles"]. Jung wrote broadly on such diverse topics as mythology, symbols, occult sciences, word associations, religion, dreams, telepathy, clairvoyance, spiritualism, and flying saucers. Jung borrowed concepts from the physical sciences (e.g., the principles of equivalence, entropy, and synchronicity in chemistry and physics) in describing the psychodynamics of personality. The principle of entropy - as adapted by Jung [the term entropy, originally coined by the German physicist Rudolf J. E. Clausius (18221888), refers to a measure of the degree of disorder of a closed system and relates to the second law of thermodynamics in physics] -states that the distribution of energy in the psyche seeks an equilibrium or balance. When Jung asserted that self-realization is the goal of psychic development, he meant that the dynamics of personality move toward a perfect balance of forces. The principle of equivalence states that if energy is expended in bringing about a certain condition, the amount expended will appear somewhere else in the system. This principle is similar to the first law of thermodynamics in physics [this law was discovered by the Ger-man physician/physicist Julius Mayer (1814-1878) and states that when a system changes from one state to another, energy is converted to a different form but the total energy remains unchanged/conserved; this law virtually makes a "perpetual-motion" device theoretically impossible], and to Hermann von Helmholtz's (1821-1894) adaptation in psychology of the physical principle of the conservation of energy. The principle of synchronicity is a general statement concerning event interpretation that applies to events that occur together in time but that are not the cause of one another. Jung borrowed the principle of enantio-dromia from the Greek philosopher Heraclitus (c. 540-c. 480 B.C.), which refers to the notion that everything eventually changes into its opposite, and which Jung described as the principle that governs all cycles of natural life, both large and small. Today, in spite of a few detractors and a lack of contact with scientific psychology, Jungian theory seems to have a number of devoted proponents and admirers throughout the world, and his influence has spread into many extrapsychological disciplines, including history, literature, literary criticism, anthropology, religion, and philosophy, among others. Perhaps Jung's analytical psychology has been dismissed by many psychologists because his theories are based on psychoanalytical and clinical findings (which include mythical and historical sources) rather than on experimental research. It may be suggested that what Jungian theory needs to make it more acceptable to scientific psychology is to test experimentally some of his hypotheses. See also ANAGOGIC THEORY; ANIMISM THEORY; DETERMINISM, DOCTRINE/THEORY OF; FREUD'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY; PERSONALITY THEORIES; THERMODYNAMICS, LAWS OF.

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