Luneburgs Theory See Perception I General Theories Of

LURIA'S LAWS OF CORTICAL FUNCTIONING. The Russian neuropsychologist Aleksandr Romanovich Luria (1902-1977) developed innovative methods for restoring brain functioning in damaged brain structures, based on his view of the brain as a complex functional system rather than a single entity. Luria's position may be summarized in his three basic laws of higher cortical functioning: there exists a hierarchical structure of cortical zones; there is diminishing specificity in cortical functioning; and there is progressive later-alization in cortical processes. Overall, Luria contributed substantially to the development and refinement of clinical tests for brain damage that correlate well with surgical and pathological studies. The strengths in Luria's approach include the following: it is based on an explicit theoretical formulation of cerebral organization (however, some parts of his model have been contradicted by empirical evidence); it emphasizes the qualitative aspects of performance (i.e., how something is performed, not just an absolute level of performance); and it is flexible in its diagnosis of mental deficits. On the negative side, there have been no rigorous or extensive assessments of Luria's procedures so that a healthy skepticism remains of the psychometric properties of his "clinical-analytical" approach. See also FORGETTING/MEMORY, THEORIES OF; LANGUAGE ACQUISITION THEORY; SPEECH THEORIES. REFERENCES

Luria, A. R. (1958). Brain disorder and language analysis. Language and Speech, 1, 14-34. Luria, A. R. (1963). Restoration of function after brain injury. New York: Mac-millan.

Luria, A. R. (1966). Higher cortical function in man. New York: Basic Books. Luria, A. R. (1968). The mind of a mnemonist.

New York: Basic Books. Luria, A. R. (1970). The functional organization of the brain. Scientific American, 222, 66-78. Luria, A. R. (1973). The working brain. New York: Penguin.

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