Matchmismatch Model See HA

BITUATION, PRINCIPLE/LAW OF.

MATERIALISM AND MECHANISM, DOCTRINES OF. See HOBBES' PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY; MECHANISTIC THEORY.

MATHEMATICAL LEARNING THEORY. See ESTES' STIMULUS SAMPLING THEORY; HULL'S LEARNING THEORY; LEARNING THEORIES/LAWS.

MATTHEW EFFECT. This phenomenon in the sociology of science, described by the American sociologist Robert King Merton (1910-2003), refers to a scientist's lifetime productivity in terms of his/her publications, and involves a by-product called "cumulative advantage." That is, scientists who publish early in their careers and continue their productive output seem to attract surplus resources and advantages, such as grant support, greater number of student disciples, and affiliation at major research organizations, universities, and institutions. Such a result allows the prolific scientist to publish even more which brings even more additional rewards and incentives, whereas the less-published scientist falls by the wayside. Thus, in common terms, "the rich get richer, and the poor get poorer." This phenomenon has been called the Matthew effect, fashioned after the biblical passage of the Parable of the Talents in the Gospel According to St. Matthew (Matthew 25:29) which states that "For to everyone who has, more shall be given, and he will have an abundance; but from the one who does not have, even what he does have shall be taken away." An interesting implication of such a doctrine of cumulative advantage, as noted by D. K. Simonton, is that individuals who begin their scientific careers with roughly equivalent capabilities will eventually find themselves separated out into losers and winners by the "luck of the draw" (i.e., not everyone can publish in the most prestigious journals, win the most financially-rewarding grants, or receive premier appointments at prestigious universities, so that someone has to come out on the bottom of the heap). Such a possibility, in turn, has been referred to as the Ecclesiastes hypothesis, named after the following biblical passage (Ecclesiastes 9:11): "I returned and saw under the sun that the race is not to the swift, Nor the battle to the strong, Nor bread to the wise, Nor riches to men of understanding, Nor favor to men of skill; But time and chance happen to them all." See also EMINENCE, THEORIES AND MEASURES OF; LOTKA/LOTKA-PRICE LAW; PERSON-ALISTIC THEORY OF HISTORY. REFERENCES

Merton, R. K. (1968). The Matthew effect in science. Science, 159, 56-63. Turner, S. P., & Chubin, D. E. (1976). Another appraisal of Ortega, the Coles, and science policy: The Ecclesiastes hypothesis. Social Science Information, 15, 657-662. Turner, S. P., & Chubin, D. E. (1979). Chance and eminence in science: Ecclesias-tes II. Social Science Information, 18, 437-449. Simonton, D. K. (2002). Great psychologists and their times: Scientific insights into psychology's history. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

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