Mental Laws Of Association

ASSOCIATION, LAWS/PRINCIPLES OF.

MENTAL MODEL. See MIND/MENTAL STATES, THEORIES OF.

MENTAL SELF-GOVERNMENT THEORY. See INTELLIGENCE, THEORIES/ LAWS OF.

MERE EXPOSURE EFFECT. This phenomenon was first studied quantitatively by the American-based Polish psychologist Robert B. Zajonc (1923- ) in 1968, even though the effect was suggested initially much earlier both by the German philosopher/psychologist Gustav Theodor Fechner (1801-1887) in 1876, and the American philosopher/psychologist William James (18421910) in 1890. The mere exposure effect refers to the tendency for repeated exposure to a stimulus to be adequate to enhance or increase an individual's liking or positive attitude towards it. In Zajonc's study, pairs of antonyms were examined, and it was found that positively-toned words were more frequent in the language according to word counts than were negatively-toned words (e.g., the English word "beauty" occurs 41 times more frequently than does the word "ugly"). In investigations of other non-English languages, Za-jonc also found that there are direct relationships between exposure frequency and rated favorability of words in languages such as German, French, Russian, and Spanish; cf., the Pollyanna effect [named by the American psychologist Charles E. Osgood (1916-1991) in the 1960s, in honor of the overly-optimistic character "Pollyanna Whittier" in American writer Eleanor H. Porter's (1868-1920) novels in the early 1900s] - refers to a tendency for individuals to pay more attention to positive than negative aspects or conceptual terms in their speech and thoughts, and the tendency to process the positive information more easily than the negative information; cf., however, trait negativity bias - a tendency for unfavorable information about a person to carry more impact on impressions of that person than favorable information; it is hypothesized (from information theory), that inasmuch as information about people typically tends to be mostly positive (or neutral), the presence of negative information tends to have more "information" and "salience;" and the preference-feedback hypothesis [formulated by the South African-born English psychologist Andrew M. Colman (1944- ), the English psychologist David J. Hargreaves (1948- ), and the Polish-born British psychologist Wladys-law Sluckin (1919-1985)] - is the speculation that for certain classes of stimuli (e.g., surnames), the relationship between rated "familiarity" and "attractiveness" is a curve having an inverted U shape, with both very familiar and very unfamiliar surnames receiving lower ratings of "attractiveness" than surnames of intermediate familiarity; however, for other classes of stimuli (e.g., first names), the relationship is a monotonic curve with "attractiveness" increasing indefinitely with "familiarity;" also, the hypothesis suggests the operation of a "feedback mechanism" (which partly explains the mere exposure effect), and the role of human choice in the "exposure-familiarity" association, especially as regards the class of stimuli consisting of first names. See also INFORMATION AND INFORMATION-PROCESSING THEORY; IMPRESSION FORMATION, THEORIES OF; INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION THEORIES; ZAJONC'S AROUSAL AND CONFLUENCE THEORIES. REFERENCES

Fechner, G. T. (1876/1897). Verschule der aesthetik. Leipzig: Breithopf & Haertel.

James, W. (1890/1950). The principles of psychology. Vol. 2. New York: Dover.

Zajonc, R. B. (1968). Attitudinal effects of mere exposure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Monograph Supplement, 9, 1-27. Boucher, J., & Osgood, C. E. (1969). The Pollyanna hypothesis. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 1-8.

Colman, A. M., Hargreaves, D. J., & Sluckin, W. (1981). Preferences for Christian names as a function of their experienced familiarity. British Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 3-5. Colman, A. M., Sluckin, W., & Hargreaves, D. J. (1981). The effect of familiarity on preferences for surnames. British Journal of Psychology, 72, 363-369.

Zajonc, R. B., & Moreland, R. L. (1982). Exposure effects in person perception: Familiarity, similarity, and attraction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18, 395-415.

MERKEL'S LAW. See HICK'S LAW.

MESMER'S THEORY/MESMERISM. See HYPNOSIS/HYPNOTISM, THEORIES OF.

METABOTROPIC EFFECT. See NEURON/NEURAL/NERVE THEORY.

The Marketers Success Affirmation

The Marketers Success Affirmation

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