Motoric Reproduction Process Hypothesis See Motor Learning Process Theories

MOTOR LEARNING/PROCESS THEORIES. In his emphasis on the role offeedback in movement regulation, the American psychologist J. A. Adams (1971) gave a new direction to the topic of motor learning and initiated his closed loop theory, which was developed on the basis of motor-learning em pirical laws employing simple and slow movements of linear positioning. The critical aspects of Adams' theory rest upon the following: the feedback production capacity; the comparison of the latter to a "correctness reference" called the perceptual trace; and the error correction resulting from the difference between the received feedback and the "correctness reference." According to Adams, "knowledge of results" is an obligatory source of information for the correction of motor responses, and motor learning improvement depends on the degree of accuracy - qualitatively and quantitatively - in knowledge of results. Such a structure gives Adams' theory its "closed-loop" quality, and reveals its historical continuity with closed-loop theory from the field of engineering, which uses peripheral feedback as a source of information about the system's response. However, Adams' theory does not seem to be able to solve the two main problems of motor learning: the novelty and the storage problems; the theory is limited, also, to linear positioning studies that are simple, slow, and generally executed in the laboratory. Additionally, the theory ties motor learning to the stereotyped repetition of movement in identical environmental conditions, which causes a practice-organization problem (cf., the motoric reproduction process hypothesis - suggests that the reproduction of motoric processes calls for capacities permitting a person to translate what is learned through observation into actual performance, such as reproducing the notion of rolling a bowling ball down the alley following a demonstration by an experienced bowler). In reacting to Adams' theory, the American psychologist R. A. Schmidt (1975) developed his motor schema theory, which includes his notion of a "generalized motor program" that is formed in the central nervous system and which contains stored muscle commands with all of the details necessary to execute a movement. Schmidt's "generalized motor program" is an abstract mnemonic structure that, once activated, allows for the execution of similar movements; and the selection of movement parameters devolves to a "motor schema" function, which represents a rule and determines the category of stimuli belonging to the proper group. The relationship between

Schmidt's "generalized motor program" and the "motor schema" is hierarchical, where the former selects the appropriate program for the execution of a movement, and the latter assigns the principal parameters needed for its application with regard to learning situation requirements (cf., Henry & Rogers, 1960). However, the problems of storage and novelty seem to be as applicable to Schmidt's theory as they are to Adams' theory. Another theory, developed by the Pakistan-born American psychologist Akhter Ahsen, and called Ah-sen's Triple Code Model (ISM), has been offered as an active mental imagery model for motor learning and performance (cf., Washburn, 1916). In Ahsen's model, three important operational principles are represented by the acronym ISM (image-somatic response-meaning); the model is a theoretical approach that is holistic, experiential, and grounded in imagery, and provides a meaningful framework for research in the field of motor learning and performance. ISM represents not only the separate roles of the three active components that describe the operations of mental imagery, but also posits their coalescence as an integrated dynamic experience (cf., Ahsen, 1984). In Ahsen's view, mental imagery is a kind of simulator of action/motor expression that is based on real-life actions and potential actions in which a person may engage; as a simulator, mental imagery provides a kinesthetic feel to it that is not merely the output of some abstract computational machine, but provides the full-bodied experiences that have the qualities of texture and a felt-sense of three-dimensional depth. Essentially, Ahsen's model is able to account for not only why mental practice/mental imagery affects motor performance, but also which components may be employed during mental rehearsal in order to produce successful outcomes. Thus, Ahsen's model suggests that mental practice (of come motor performance/learning) is compos-ed of three components: the imagery (I) of the act itself (and the manner in which the person interacts with the image as if they were acting in the real world); the meaning (M) which refers to the way the performer understands how the motor/skill should be done; and the somatic (S) response the person has when becoming aware of what is required of him or her. Ashen's ISM has been identified as an approach that provides solutions in each of the areas where Adams' and Schmidt's motor learning theories have been found to be deficient (cf., Taktek & Hochman, 2004). In the subject areas of motor coordination, kinematics, human locomotion, visual motion, motion perception, handwriting/drawing movements, and arm-pointing movements, the two-thirds power law (e.g., Lacquanti, Terzuolo, & Viviani, 1983) has been invoked as a quantitative descriptive/explanatory device. For example, the two-thirds power law, a specific power law/function, describes the data/results of studies where the velocity of execution of handwriting/drawing movements depends on the global metric properties of the motor movement (e.g., size, linear extent), and where the instantaneous velocity depends, also, on the local curvature of the trajectory (i.e., on the differential geometrical properties of the person's movement). In such cases, the velocity of movement execution increases with the radius of curvature, implying the presence of a built-in tendency of a person's motor-control system to keep angular velocity relatively constant, and describable by a specific exponent of the power law. Thus, in general terms, the two-thirds power law describes and quantifies the relationship between movement/motor velocity and curvature of the endpoint path of movement, and is able to integrate both mechanical and neural factors in motor learning/process contexts. See also IMAGERY/MENTAL IMAGERY, THEORIES OF; LEARNING THEORIES/LAWS; MOTOR THEORY OF THINKING/CONSCIOUSNESS; NEW STRUCTURALISM THEORY/PARADIGM; STEVENS' POWER LAW.

100 Bowling Tips

100 Bowling Tips

Playing bowling with your friends can help you decide if it is indeed the hobby that you want to invest your time on today. Aside from that, it can help you get a better feel of the sport. More importantly, when you play with your friends, it would become a more fun activity, which you can look forward to each week.

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