Natural Response Theory

LANGUAGE ORIGINS, THEORIES OF.

NATURAL SELECTION, LAW OF. This generalization, first proposed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and the British biologist Alfred Russel Wallace (18231913) in 1858, asserts that of the range of inheritable variations of traits in a population, those that contribute to an individual's survival will be the ones that have the highest probability of being passed on to the next generation of individuals or organisms. Natural selection assumes that the contributions to succeeding generations of organisms do not appear in a random fashion, but are "selected out" on the basis of the viability and utility of the trait(s). The law of natural selection is recognized today, generally, as the essential biological mechanism operative in evolutionary processes. See also DARWIN'S EVOLUTION THEORY/EVOLUTION, THEORY/ LAWS OF. REFERENCES

Darwin, D. (1859). On the origin of species by means of natural selection. London: Murray.

Wallace, A. R. (1905). My life: A record of events and opinions. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company.

NATURE VERSUS NURTURE THEORIES. The nature versus nurture dichotomy originated with the Greek philosopher Socrates (c. 470-399 B.C.), and was popularized later by the English schoolmaster Richard

Mulcaster (1530-1611) and the English naturalist/psychologist Sir Francis Galton (18221911). In psychology, the nature versus nurture theories reflect the historical controversy over whether psychological abilities, traits, characteristics, and behaviors are inborn/inherited/hereditary (nature position) or whether they are mainly learned/acquired through experience and contact with the environment (nurture position, or doctrine of environmental determinism). Traditionally, several areas in psychology have been involved intimately in the nature versus nurture controversy (cf., natural law - in the "hard" or "tough-minded" sciences, such as physics and chemistry, this principle refers to a general statement of the factors whereby the phenomena of the universe proceed; and in the "soft" or "tender-minded" sciences, such as psychology and sociology, it refers to any sanction of social behavior based on established custom, norms, or divine sanction, rather than on legislative enactment; and natural law theory - in the disciplines of philosophy and theology, this principle refers to the notion of the supremacy of nature in defining the purpose of all natural phenomena). For example, on the issue of intelligence, the question has been asked, "Is intelligence genetically, environmentally, or culturally defined?" On the issue of visual space perception, the question has been asked, "Is our perception of a three-dimensional world based on the fact that we are born with such a spatial knowledge, or does it occur because we learn to see such spatial relationships through experience?" [cf., visual cliff phenomenon/apparatus/test - a device used to test depth perception in very young organisms, animals as well as humans; it consists of a large box with a heavy glass top and a narrow board across the center of the glass; the board separates a shallow "safe" side from an apparent and dangerous drop (the "visual cliff"); the participant is placed on the board, and its consistent movement toward the shallow side indicates, presumably, an innate ability to perceive depth; results with this apparatus consistently show that most young species that can locomote at birth show an immediate avoidance of the "dangerous" cliff side; also, human neonates - who can self-locomote - indicate by their consistent avoid ance of the cliff side that they seem to have an innate appreciation of depth and possess a natural ability for visual depth perception]. In this regard, in 1688, the Irish philosopher, astronomer, and politician William Molyneux (1656-1698) posed a question (called Molyneux's Question, today) to the English philosopher John Locke (1632-1704), asking whether a congenitally blind adult - upon suddenly acquiring vision - would be able to distinguish between a ball (globe) and a cube by sight alone, without touching them. Both Mo-lyneux and Locke (who was an empiricist) agreed the answer to the question was "no." [Note: However, psychological research in the 1960s on the topic of "cross-modal transfer" found results supporting a "yes" answer to Molyneux's Question]. Molyneux's simple question went straight to the heart of the early philosophical debate over "innate ideas," and is still of interest to psychologists today in terms of theories of the form and extent of the brain's biological/genetic programming and circuitry, especially concerning language, perception, intelligence, and social behavior. See also BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF HUMOR/LAUGHTER; BERKELEY'S THEORY OF VISUAL SPACE PERCEPTION; CATTELL'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY; CHOMSKY'S PSYCHOLINGUISTIC THEORY; EMPIRICAL/EMPIRICISM, DOCTRINE OF; EMPIRICIST VERSUS NATIV-IST THEORIES; GALTON'S LAWS; INTELLIGENCE, THEORIES/LAWS OF; LOCKE'S PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY; PERCEPTION (I. GENERAL), THEORIES OF; SPEECH THEORIES. REFERENCES

Locke, J. (1690/1965). Essay concerning human understanding. London: Dent. Davis, J. W. (1960). The Molyneux problem.

Journal of the History of Ideas, 21, 392-408.

Morgan, M. J. (1977). Molyneux's question: Vision, touch, and the philosophy of perception. Oxford, UK: Cambridge University Press. Weisfeld, G. E. (1982). The nature-nurture issue and the integrating concept of function. In B. B. Wolman (Ed.), Handbook of developmental psy-

chology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Heil, J. (1987). The Molyneux question. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 17, 227-241. Evans, G. (2002). Molyneux's question. In A.

Noe & E. Thompson (Eds.), Vision and mind. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press.

NECKER CUBE ILLUSION. See APPENDIX A.

NEED ACHIEVEMENT THEORY. See

ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION, THEORY OF.

NEED-DRIVE-INCENTIVE PATTERN THEORY. See MOTIVATION, THEORIES OF.

NEED-HIERARCHY THEORY. See

MASLOW'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY.

NEED, LAW OF. See CONDUCT, LAWS OF.

NEED-PRESS THEORY. See MURRAY'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY.

NEED-REDUCTION THEORIES. See

MOTIVATION, THEORIES OF.

NEED THEORIES. See MOTIVATION, THEORIES OF.

NEGATIVE ADAPTATION, PRINCIPLE

OF. See HABITUATION, PRINCIPLE/LAW OF.

NEGATIVE AFTERIMAGES PHENOMENON. See EMMERT'S LAW; HERING-HURVICH-JAMESON COLOR VISION THEORY.

NEGATIVE CONTRAST EFFECT. See

CRESPI EFFECT.

NEGATIVE INCENTIVE EFFECT. See

FESTINGER'S COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY.

NEGATIVE LAW OF EFFECT. See EFFECT, LAW OF.

NEGATIVE RECENCY EFFECT. See

PROBABILITY THEORY/LAWS.

NEGATIVE SELF-VERIFICATION THEORY. See SELF-CONCEPT THEORY.

NEGATIVE STATE RELIEF MODEL.

See BYSTANDER INTERVENTION EFFECT.

NEGATIVE TRANSFER OF TRAINING EFFECT. See ASSIMILATION, LAW OF.

NEOBEHAVIORIST THEORY. See BE-

HAVIORIST THEORY.

NEOCATASTROPHISM THEORY. See

DARWIN'S EVOLUTION THEORY.

NEO-DISSOCIATION THEORY. See

DISSOCIATION THEORY; HYPNOSIS/ HYPNOTISM, THEORIES OF.

NEO-EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES OF EMOTION. See IZARD'S THEORY OF EMOTIONS.

NEO-FREUDIAN/NEO-ANALYTIC/PSY-CHODYNAMIC/PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES. See PERSONALITY THEORIES.

NEO-LAMARCKIAN THEORY OF GENETICS. See LAMARCK'S THEORY.

NEO-MALTHUSIANISM. See MALTHUS' THEORY.

NEO-MENDELISM, DOCTRINE OF. See

LAMARCK'S THEORY.

NEO-PLATONISM THEORY. See

LEARNING THEORIES/LAWS.

NERNST HEAT THEOREM. See THERMODYNAMICS, LAWS OF.

NERNST-LILLIE THEORY. See NEURON/NEURAL/NERVE THEORY.

NETWORK EFFECT. See PSYCHOPA-THOLOGY, THEORIES OF.

NETWORK MODEL. See NEURAL NETWORK MODELS OF INFORMATION PROCESSING; PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING MODEL.

Power Of Hypnosis

Power Of Hypnosis

Hypnosis is something most people see as being some kind of new age mumbo jumbo, but it's actually been scientifically to be effective in many people. Learn more within this guide.

Get My Free Ebook


Responses

  • frances
    How does natural selection applies to depth perception?
    2 months ago

Post a comment