Nave Personality Theories

PERSONALITY THEORIES.

NAÏVE REALISM DOCTRINE. See PERCEPTION (I. GENERAL), THEORIES OF.

NAPALKOV PHENOMENON. This phenomenon is named after the contemporary Russian neurophysiologist Anatolii Vik-torovich Napalkov (? - ?), and refers to an exception to the usual conditioned reflex experimental paradigm and results that occur in some phobic individuals, in which the conditioned stimulus (such as a traumatic event) does not immediately produce a fear reaction. On the contrary, the fear increases over time, rather than being extinguished as it would ordinarily during exposure to the unreinforced conditioned stimulus (cf., H. J. Eysenck's incubation theory - states that under certain conditions exposure to a fear-eliciting conditioned stimulus may result in a delayed growth of fear, and the theory has been used to explain extreme avoidance/symptom maintenance in extinction procedures; and incubation of avoidance theory - based on evidence of the delayed appearance of conditioning in laboratory animals exposed to a traumatic event, such as electroconvulsive shock, this theory posits that avoidance learning requires a consolidation or incubation period before it becomes established in memory). See also EYSENCK'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY; PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES/LAWS/THEORIES . REFERENCES

Eysenck, H. J. (1955). A dynamic theory of anxiety and hysteria. Journal of Mental Science, 101, 28-51. Napalkov, A. V., & Karas, A. I. (1957).

Elimination of conditioned pathological bonds in experimental hypertensive conditions. Zhurnal Vysshei Nervnoi Deyatel 'nosti Im I. P. Pavlova, 7, 402-409. Napalkov, A. V. (1963). Information processes of the brain. In N. Weiner & J. P. Schade (Eds.), Progress in brain research: Nerve, brain, and memory models. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

Malloy, P. F., & Levis, D. J. (1990). A human laboratory test of Eysenck's theory of incubation: A search for the resolution of the neurotic paradox. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment (Historical Archive), 12, 309-327.

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