Neural Darwinism Theory

DARWIN'S EVOLUTION THEORY.

NEURAL NETWORK MODELS OF INFORMATION PROCESSING. According to these models of information processing, a system of interconnected neurons (either physiologically-real or computer-simulated) provides the basis for mental experiences via the interaction of multiple neurons or computing units - each in a particular activating/firing state and each possessing the capacity to influence others by either inhibitory or excitatory connections/synapses. The entire neural network/system is activated initially by a stimulus that affects a subset of the units, and continues to travel through the network until an equilibrium state of minimum energy is reached. The notion of a neural network model was first anticipated by William James (1842-1910) in the late 1800s; the first neural logic (binary code) circuit was proposed by Nicholas Rashevsky (1899-1972) in 1938; the first detailed neural network was developed by Warren Sturgis McCulloch (1898-1968 and Walter Pitts (1923-1969) in 1943; the first neural network with the ability to learn was developed by Alan Mathison Turing (19121954) in 1948 and Donald Olding Hebb (1904-1985) in 1949; the perceptron - a pattern-recognition machine and an early example of a neural network - was developed by Frank Rosenblatt (1928- ) in 1958; and a connectionist model of human memory was developed and popularized by James Lloyd McClelland (1948- ) in 1981. Neural network models have been referred to, also, as neural nets and artificial neural networks that indicate their artificial, rather than their natural, structures. Some versions of neural networks employ fuzzy logic - a form of logic in which propositions contain "truth values" that range from 0 to 1 rather than being either false (0) or true (1) as employed in more conventional

Boolean logic systems. See also ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF THOUGHT THEORY/MODEL; BOOLEAN SET THEORY; CASCADE PROCESSING MODEL; FORGETTING/ MEMORY, THEORIES OF; FUZZY SET THEORY; INFORMATION/INFORMATION-PROCESSING THEORY; NOMO-LOGICAL NETWORK THEORY; PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING MODEL.

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

The Ultimate Guide To Overcoming Fear And Getting Breakthroughs. Fear is without doubt among the strongest and most influential emotional responses we have, and it may act as both a protective and destructive force depending upon the situation.

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