Neurotransmitterbiogenic Amine Theory Of Depression


NEW STRUCTURALISM THEORY/ PARADIGM. The Pakistan-born American psychologist, psychotherapist, and imagery authority Akhter Ahsen (1986) formulated a synthesis of several earlier imagery paradigms in his New Structuralism theory [cf., the original, or "old," school of Structuralism - established by the German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) and the English-born American psychologist Edward B. Titchener (1867-1927) - was based on the assumption that all human mental experience should be viewed as combinations/blends of simple processes, or sensations; structuralism, as an older and more general paradigm, was employed, also, in the field of linguistics, most notably by the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913); in the area of anthropology by the French anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss (1908- ); and in developmental psychology, most notably by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896-1980)]. The earlier, traditional strategies/paradigms used in psychology to study imagery include: the experimental-cognitive approach (G. Fechner; W. Wundt; F. Galton); the psychoanalytical-dissociationist approach (S. Freud; J. M. Charcot;; P. Janet); the neuropsychological approach (P. Flourens; A. Luria; D. O. Hebb); and the developmental approach (J. Piaget; B. Inhelder). The New Structuralism theory/ paradigm includes the experimental methods of the laboratory, but it bases its assumptions on the insights originally obtained through clinical research and therapy. The New Structuralism methodology differs radically from other paradigms in that it explicitly sets out to obtain as complete a phenomenological report as possible of the participant's imagery that is produced via standard instructions; the results obtained in this approach show that introspection provides a highly reliable and valid indicator of imagery quality, content, and structure. Among Ahsen's other theoretical formulations are the following: an image theory of conflict - in which the image is examined as a composite phenomenon where the somatic or physiological response and meaning (lexical/verbal aspect) are reportable dimensions; meaning is viewed as a covert image, and the possible divergence between the original overt image and the covert image in meaning is the primary domain of possible conflict; this theory suggests that an image produces a conflict only when contradicted by a covert image from the verbal process/do- main, and is resolvable only when the individual compares the original and covert images, and corrects the misrepresentation of the original image in verbal report; and the triple code model of imagery (also known as the image-somatic response-meaning, or tripartite ISM model) -in which the structural aspects define the whole metaphorical process: the image, the feeling, and the meaning (i.e., ISM) which produce a single, undivided, and unified effect. In the ISM model, the feeling and emotion (S) stand between the image (I) and the meaning (M); in this formulation, the basic minimal unit of psychological experience that involves imagery is the ISM sequence: the interconnected operations may be found in this three-dimensional unity that is composed of a vivid image (I), a somatic/body response (S), and a meaning (M) where it is suggested that normal imagery experiences tend to occur mostly in the I-S-M order/sequence. However, for various reasons, the ISM may not occur in the proper order for the individual. Hypotheti-cally, there are six basic operational sequences/variations of the ISM: ISM, IMS, MIS, MSI, SIM, and SMI, each one of which affords the opportunity for therapeutic analysis and/or discussions of psychological theories, in general, as well as the particular theoretical issues of metaphor, rhetoric, literary analysis, and imagination. See also IMAGERY AND MENTAL IMAGERY, THEORIES OF; MOTOR LEARNING/PROCESS THEORIES; PARADIGM SHIFT DOCTRINE. REFERENCES

Ahsen, A. (1984). ISM: The Triple Code Model for imagery and psycho-physiology. Journal of Mental Imagery, 8, 15-42. Ahsen, A. (1986). The New Structuralism: Images in dramatic interlock. Journal of Mental Imagery, 10, 1-92. Ahsen, A. (1990). An image theory of conflict. Journal of Mental Imagery, 14, 53-61.

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

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