Observational Learning Theory See Banduras Theory

OBSERVER EFFECT. See EXPERIMENTER EFFECTS.

OCCAM MODEL. This computational model of learning, regarding predictive and explanatory knowledge, called the OCCAM

model (Pazzani, 1990, 1991), integrates three separate learning methods: similarity-based learning (SBL), explanation-based learning (EBL), and theory-driven learning (TDL). The goal of this integration via OCCAM is to provide a "learning architecture" that accounts for the effects of prior knowledge on human learning, and helps to explain how an individual may learn rapidly when new experiences are consistent with prior knowledge, as well as still retaining the ability to learn in novel domains. See also CONCEPT LEARNING/ CONCEPT FORMATION, THEORIES OF; LEARNING THEORIES/LAWS. REFERENCES

Pazzani, M. (1990). Creating a memory of causal relationships: An integration of empirical and explanation-based learning methods. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Pazzani, M. (1991). Learning to predict and explain: An integration of similarity-based, theory-driven, and explanation-based learning. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 1, 153199.

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