Organ Specificity Hypothesis

See PSYCHOSOMATICS THEORY.

ORGONE THEORY. See REICH'S OR-GONE/ORGONOMY THEORY.

ORING'S THEORY OF HUMOR. According to Elliott Oring's (1945- ) theory of humor, humor depends on the discernment of an "appropriate incongruity" and suggests that humor is based on the perception or apprehension by the individual of a structure of ideas rather than a reaction to particular ideas, motives, or events. Such a hypothesis is reflective, formally, of classical metaphysics and mythic formulae in which, for example, Aristotle's assertion that all definitions should include a "genus" and a "differentia" is found in Oring's notion of humor where it may be viewed more "genus" (i.e., a given entity is located within a particular set) than "differentia" (i.e., distinction of a given member of a set from other members). Oring argues that as sentiments, in particular, have become suppressed in modern society, they have been rechanneled through humor. Also, according to Oring, humor serves as a vehicle for sentiments because it is a form of "intellectual play," it tends to be a distraction from underlying thoughts, and it tends to devalue emotions. In Oring's approach, three communicative cases or situations are illustrated in which humor is used socially to convey affection: dyadic traditions, greeting cards, and "social roasts." See also HUMOR, THEORIES OF; INCONGRUITY/INCONSISTENCY THEO-

RIES OF HUMOR; SOCIAL/COMMUNICATION THEORY OF LAUGHTER. REFERENCES

Oring, E. (1981). Israeli humor: The content and structure of the Chizbat of the Palmah. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Schrempp. G. (1995). Our funny universe: On Aristotle's metaphysics, Oring's theory of humor, and other appropriate incongruities. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 8, 219-228. Oring, E. (1997). The jokes of Sigmund Freud: A study in humor and Jewish identity. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson. Oring, E. (2003). Engaging humor. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

ORNE EFFECT. See EXPERIMENTER EFFECTS.

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