Organismic Theorymodel


ORGANIZATIONAL/INDUSTRIAL/SYSTEMS THEORY. The branch of applied psychology called organizational/industrial psychology covers various areas such as industrial, military, economic, and personnel psychology and researches problems of tests and measurements, organizational behavior, personnel practices, human engineering/factors, and the effects of work, fatigue, pay, satisfaction, and efficiency. In the present context of theory, the term organization is defined as a complex social system made up of individuals, their facilities, and the products created, where the following criteria may be applied: there must be coordination of personnel effort, personnel must have some set of common goals or purposes, there has to be some division of labor within the larger structure, and there has to be some degree of integrated functioning, including a hierarchy of authority. The area called systems theory emphasizes the interaction and interrelated nature of behavior (cf., ego-alter theory, which attempts to account for the origin or existence of social organizations in terms of innate egoism or altruism; and open systems theory which holds that an organization may be viewed as an "open system" where it "imports energy" via hiring and "transforms energy" via making products); according to systems theory, an individual's behavior does not occur in a vacuum but rather is influenced by, and in turn influences, the environment in which it occurs [cf., chaos theory (also known as nonlinear dynamical systems theory) described by the American science writer James Gleick as a viewpoint imported from the mathematics of nonlinear systems that is applied to the behavior of complex systems such as humans, the weather, and wildlife populations; the butterfly effect (also known as the sensitive dependence phenomenon) is the tendency for two sets of initial conditions (that differ by an arbitrarily small degree at the outset) to diverge dramatically over a long period; the catastrophe theory, which is a mathematical approach developed by the French mathematician Rene Thom (1923- ) that attempts to formalize the nature of abrupt discontinuities in functions, and may be used to model psychological phenomena, such as gradually increasing anger, leading abruptly to a temper tantrum/behavioral display; and the American economist Julian L. Simon's (1932-1998) economics-based grand theory that represents an "anti-entropy" position, emphasizing the notion that evolving humans create more than they use or destroy]. The general term organizational dynamics is used to refer collectively to the various dynamic patterns of shifting elements within an organizational unit where at least seven conceptual elements may be viewed in interrelationships: organizational processes, external environment, employees, formal structure, internal social system, tech nology, and coalitions within the organization [cf., Taylor system/theory - named after the American engineer Frederick W. Taylor (1856-1915), refers to the prototype/rational system of scientific management development in the 1880s whose goal was the improvement of industrial efficiency via the use of time-and-motion studies, and the use of regular rest periods, among other techniques; Deming management theory - named after the American business/organizational consultant and statistician W. Edwards Deming (1900-1993), who developed the area of total quality management (TQM), that is, an integrated and pervasive management theory that attempts to maximize the quality of an organization's services and products; Deming formulated a set of 14 guidelines for optimal organizational behavior and quality management: constancy of purpose; the new philosophy; cease dependence on mass inspection; end lowest tender contracts; improve every process; institute training on the job; institute leadership; drive out fear; break down departmental barriers; eliminate exhortations and slogans; eliminate arbitrary numerical targets; permit pride of workmanship; encourage education; and foster top management commitment and action]. Three topics of special theoretical interest to contemporary organizational psychologists concern managerial/leadership style, worker motivation/attitudes, and job satisfaction. Four different theories about the nature of individuals (includes both genders, women as well as men, even though the theories typically, and historically, refer exclusively to "man") that are held by managers and leaders are: the rational-economic man theory - argues that humans are primarily motivated by money; the leader's task is to manipulate the worker to perform his/her best within the limits of what one can be paid; workers' feelings, which are viewed as irrational, must be prevented from obstructing the expression of the workers' rational self-interest [cf., the American social and industrial psychologist Douglas Murray McGregor's (1906-1964) Theory X - a traditional approach to control in organizations where it is assumed, among other things, that the average person dislikes work and will avoid it if possible, and people need to be directed, coerced, controlled, and threatened with punishment by management]; .social man theory - holds that people are basically motivated by social needs that determine their sense of identity and meaning through relationships with others; self-actualizing man theory - maintains that people are intrinsically motivated, as in the worker who has deeply personal, internalized reasons for doing a good job; and complex man theory - argues that different workers have different needs and capabilities, and managers/leaders must be sensitive to individual differences in the desires, needs, fears, and abilities of workers. The issue of worker motivation has been approached by three theories, among others: goal-setting theory, equity theory, and expectancy theory. Research on goal-setting theory (i.e., the proposal that specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance) suggests that goals provide both direction and mobilization of behaviors where the specificity of the goal acts as an internal stimulus. According to equity theory in a work setting, a worker is driven to perform by a need to maintain equilibrium or balance - that is, employees prefer jobs in which the "output" is equal to the "input;" if imbalances occur, workers adjust their input, output, or their psychological perceptions of work; Currently, one of the most popular theories of worker motivation and attitudes is expectancy theory, which holds that workers' efforts are determined by expectancy of outcomes, their desirability, and the energy needed to achieve them (cf., prospect theory - an algebraic decision theory that attempts to explain departures from expected utility theory; it includes the certainty effect - the tendency to overweight outcomes that are certain relative to outcomes that are merely probable; reflection effect -the tendency to consider and deliberate over alternative solutions to problems; and isolation effect - the tendency to show superior recall in the learning of items having a high degree of salience or distinctiveness; note, also, the false-consensus effect, which is the tendency to overestimate the degree to which one's opinions and beliefs are shared by others; and the assimilation-contrast theory that is based on the assumption that attitudes are modified by changes in the relationship between one's originally held position, the opin ion of the person effecting the change, and the source credibility). According to expectancy theory, workers ask themselves three questions: What can I reasonably expect from my efforts? Do I really want the rewards offered by management? If I give maximum effort, will it be reflected in my job evaluation? Another important issue in organizational psychology is the problem of job satisfaction. Among the theories of job satisfaction is the personality-job fit theory, which asserts that a good fit, or match, between an individual's personality and an occupation results in maximal job satisfaction (cf., the Peter principle, which states that one gets promoted up through the ranks of an organization until one reaches one's level of incompetence!). See also ASSIMILATION-CONTRAST THEORY/EFFECT; CATASTROPHE THEORY/ MODEL; CONTROL/SYSTEMS THEORY; DECISION-MAKING THEORIES; EQUITY THEORY; EXCHANGE AND SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY; EXPECTED UTILITY THEORY; FALSE CONSENSUS EFFECT; GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY; HAWTHORNE EFFECT; LEADERSHIP, THEORIES OF; MURPHY'S LAW(S); RISKY-SHIFT EFFECT; WORK/CAREER/OCCUPATION, THEORIES OF. REFERENCES

Taylor, F. W. (1911). The principles of scientific management. New York: Harper.

McGregor, D. M. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Argyris, C. (1964). Integrating the individual and the organization. New York: Wiley.

Schein, E. (1965). Organizational psychology.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Deming, W. E. (1966). Some theory of sampling. New York: Dover. Locke, E. (1968). Toward a theory of task motivation and performance. Organizational Behavior & Human Performance, 4, 309-329. Blau, P. M. (1970). A formal theory of differentiations in organizations. American Sociological Review, 35, 201-218.

Silverman, D. (1971). The theory of organizations: A sociological framework. New York: Basic Books.

Thom, R. (1972). Stabilite structurelle et mor-phogenese: Essai d'une theorie generale des modeles. Paris: E.S.F.

Tausky, C., & Parke, E. (1976). Job enrichment, need theory, and reinforcement theory. In R. Dubin (Ed.), Handbook of work, organization, and society. Chicago: Rand-Mc-Nally.

Argyris, C., & Schon, D. (1978). Organizational learning: A theory of action perspective. Reading, MA: Addi-son-Wesley.

Blake, R., & Mouton, J. (1978). The new managerial grid. Houston, TX: Gulf.

Kopelman, R. (1979). Directionally different expectancy theory predictions of work motivation and job satisfaction. Motivation & Emotion, 3, 299317.

Holland, J. (1985). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Deming, W. E. (1986). Out of the crisis. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press.

Gleick, J. (1987). Chaos: Making a new science. New York: Penguin Books.

Walton, M., & Deming, W. E. (1988). The Deming management method. New York: Perigee.

(1995). Chaos theory in psychology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Wilpert, B. (1995). Organizational behavior.

Annual Review of Psychology, 46, 59-90.

Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Cooper, C. L. (1998). Theories of organizational stress. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rapoport, D. C. (2001). Inside terrorist organizations. London: F. Cass.

Brief, A. P., & Weiss, H. M. (2002). Organizational behavior: Affect in the workplace. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 279-307. Olmstead, J. A. (2002). Creating the functionally competent organization: An open systems approach. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Ilgen, D., Hollenbeck, J., Johnson, M., & Jundt, D. (2005). Teams in organizations: From input-process-output models to IMOI models. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 517-543.


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