Paradigm Of Associative Inhibition See Mullerschumann Law

PARADIGM SHIFT DOCTRINE. In 1962, the American historian/philosopher of science Thomas S. Kuhn (1922-1996) presented his doctrine of the paradigm shift in science. In general, a paradigm is a model, pattern, or diagram of the functions and interrelationships of a process, and includes a conceptual framework within which theories in a specific research area are organized and constructed. In particular, Kuhn proposed that systematic patterns to organize and conduct research within different spheres of knowledge, or disciplines, occur periodically [cf., scientist-practitioner/ Boulder model - an educational paradigm for the training of clinical psychologists; the Boulder model is based on recommendations reached at a 1949 United States Public Health Service conference held in Boulder, Colorado stating that practitioners/clinicians in psychol ogy should be trained essentially as scientists who appreciate, and carry out, scientific research and methodologies; Planck's principle - named after the German physicist Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858-1947), states that new scientific data/facts may survive not by convincing opponents of their validity, but because the opponents die and the newer generations accept those facts and principles; the doctrine of post-constructionism, also called social constructionism, is a philosophical doctrine advanced by the controversial Algerian-born French philosopher Jacques Derrida (1930-2004) suggesting that all theories, concepts, and scientific principles are merely linguistic constructions and lack actual being or existence; doctrine of post-modernism - a re-cent international movement in the social sciences and humanities, suggesting that claims about social and psychological knowledge cannot be objective, and theories and research findings in the social sciences cannot transcend the time and/or place in which they were produced; the doctrine attempts to assess the role played in science by the values and subjectivity of the researcher - as well as the existing politics - surrounding the discovery and formulation of social knowledge; and theory-begging fallacy - the logical error of the labeling of a theoretical assumption as a behavioral fact, involving the intellectual dishonesty of making some improved or unprov-able statement and then relating it with some fact to create in the audience belief in the original statement]. In psychology, for example, paradigmatic shifts occurred when introspection gave way to behaviorism early in the 20th century and, again later, shifts occurred from behaviorism to cognitive processes/psychology [cf., third-force theory /therapy - this is a relatively recent paradigm in psychological theory and psychotherapy that contrasts both with the behavior-therapy and psychoanalytic theoretical approaches, and includes several existential, humanistic, and experiential therapies and theories; third-force therapy centers on the individual's direct experience, the "here-and-now," responsibility for self-change, the use of group dynamics/ interactions, the development of trust in natural processes, the expression of spontaneous feelings over reason, the emphasis on personal growth over cure or adjustment, and the self-discovery/self-exploration of one's potentialities; third-force theory, or humanist theory and self-growth/ self-actualization psychology, was advanced by the American psychologist Abraham Maslow (1908-1970), among several others]. Thus, the paradigm shift doctrine states that - occasionally in science - there is a system-wide alteration in thinking, procedures, and orientation, where a fundamental reorganization occurs (sometimes abruptly) concerning how people think about an entire topic/issue; for instance, the evidence advanced by the Polish astronomer Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543) - that the earth revolves around the sun - caused a paradigm shift in the discipline of astronomy, and replaced the older paradigm or notion of the Egyptian astronomer and geographer Ptolemy (c. 90-168 A.D.) that the earth is the stationary center of the universe. In his writings, Kuhn distinguishes, also, between the concepts of normal science (a period in the development of any scientific discipline where there is general acceptance and agreement concerning the basic concepts and where there is steady, cumulative progress) and scientific revolution (a period in which paradigms compete with one another in a scientific discipline until a new paradigm replaces the old - by a process analogous to Darwin's evolutionary principle of survival of the fittest - causing a paradigm shift to occur in the science). See also BE-HAVIORIST THEORY; DARWIN'S EVOLUTION THEORY; HISTORICAL MODELS OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY; MASLOW'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY. REFERENCE

Kuhn, T. S. (1962/1970). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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