Plutchiks Model Of Emotions

The American psychologist Robert Plutchik -like C. E. Izard and S. Tomkins - independently developed an approach toward the understanding of emotions that is based largely on the evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin (1809-1882). Plutchik's model, also known as the multidimensional model of the emotions (MME), shows how "primary" emotions such as surprise and fear may blend into "second-dary" emotions such as awe, as well as indicates how various emotions such as fear, terror, and apprehension may involve one "primary" emotion experienced at several different levels of intensity. Plutchik's model is shown both as a two-dimensional circle and a three-dimensional ellipse so that, when viewed as a two-dimensional circle (analogous to a color wheel), it indicates how the eight primary emotions (joy, acceptance, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, anticipation) may be mixed/blended to give various secondary emotions (awe, disappointment, remorse, contempt, aggressiveness, optimism, love, submission). When the model is viewed as a three-dimensional ellipse (analogous to a color spindle), emotional intensity may be assessed for the primary and secondary emotions. According to Plutchik, diversity in human emotion is a product of variations in emotional intensity, as well as a blending of primary emotions. Each vertical slice in his model is a primary emotion that can be subdivided into emotional expressions of varied intensity ranging from most intense at the top of the model to least intense at the bottom. Plutchik joins the ranks of those evolutionary theorists of emotion who assume that evolution equips us with a small number of primary emotions that have proven to be adaptive and have survival value. Plutchik's model, when viewed as two- and three-dimensional figures, appears to be a combination of the earlier model of emotion by H. Schlosberg and of the earlier model of activation and arousal by D. Lindsley, as well as some basis in the historical "Galen-Wundt theory of personality struc ture" (cf., Eysenck, 1970). In his current cir-cumplex model of emotion and personality, Plutchik focuses on determining how traits and emotions are similar structurally, and offers an economical description of that relationship. See also ACTIVATION/AROUSAL THEORY; DARWIN'S EVOLUTION THEORY; EKMAN-FRIESEN'S THEORY OF EMOTIONS;; EMOTIONS, THEORIES/ LAWS OF; FACIAL-FEEDBACK HYPOTHESIS; IZARD'S THEORY OF EMOTIONS; UNIVERSAL MODEL OF HUMAN EMOTIONS. REFERENCES

Darwin, C. (1872). Expression of the emotions in man and animals. London: Murray.

Lindsley, D. (1951). Emotion. In S. S. Stevens (Ed.), Handbook of experimental psychology. New York: Wiley. Eysenck, H. J. (1953). The structure of human personality. New York: Wiley. Schlosberg, H. (1954). Three dimensions of emotion. Psychological Review, 61, 81-88.

Plutchik, R. (1962). The emotions: Facts, theories, and a new model. New York: Random House. Plutchik, R. (1980). Emotion: A psychoevolu-tionary synthesis. New York: Harper & Row.

Tomkins, S. (1980). Affect as amplification: Some modifications in theory. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion, theory, research, and experience. New York: Academic Press.

Izard, C. E. (1984). Emotion-cognition relationships and human development. In C. E. Izard, J. Kagan, & R. Za-jonc (Eds.), Emotions, cognition, and behavior. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.



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