Psychoanalytic Theories Of Personality See Freuds Theory Of Personality Personality Theories

PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY OF DREAMS. See DREAM THEORY.

PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY OF HUMOR/WIT. See FREUD'S THEORY OF WIT/HUMOR; HUMOR, THEORIES OF; MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES OF HUMOR.

PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY OF IN-GROUP BIAS. See INGROUP BIAS THEORIES.

PSYCHOBIOLOGY, THEORY OF. See

MOTIVATION, THEORIES OF; MURPHY'S BIOSOCIAL THEORY.

PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES OF PERSONALITY. See FREUD'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY; PERSONALITY THEORIES.

PSYCHOGENIC THEORIES OF ABNORMALITY. See PSYCHOPATHOL-OGY, THEORIES OF.

PSYCHOHISTORY. See ERIKSON'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY; FREUD'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY.

PSYCHOLEXICOLOGY THEORY. See

MEANING, THEORY/ASSESSMENT OF.

PSYCHOLINGUISTICS THEORY. See

CHOMSKY'S PSYCHOLINGUISTICS THEORY; LANGUAGE ACQUISITION THEORY; SPEECH THEORIES.

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTANCE. See DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY.

PSYCHOLOGICAL HEDONISM, LAW

OF. See EFFECT, LAW OF; HEDONISM, THEORY/LAW OF.

PSYCHOLOGICAL LAW OF RELATIVITY. See WUNDT'S THEORIES/DOCTRINES/PRINCIPLES.

PSYCHOLOGICAL MOMENT. See

JAMES' TIME THEORY; TIME, THEORIES OF.

PSYCHOLOGICAL REVERSAL THEORY. See APTER'S REVERSAL THEORY OF HUMOR.

PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY OF IN-TENTIONALISM. See MIND-BODY THEORIES.

PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY OF LAUGHTER, FIRST. See HOBBES' THEORY OF HUMOR/LAUGHTER.

PSYCHOLOGICAL TIME, MODELS OF.

The current models of psychological time may be categorized into two classes of mutually incompatible models or theories: the biological theories - propose timing with a timer (e.g., clock-counter models) and the cognitive theories - propose timing without a timer (e.g., attentional models). Biological theories speculate that psychological time is a product of brain mechanisms that include one or more "internal clocks" by which the individual has direct access to time behavior and aids in judging duration (cf., neural timing theory; Luce & Green, 1972). On the other hand, cognitive theories suggest that psychological time is a product of information-processing events, especially those involving memory, attention, and judgment. R. Block and D. Zakay (1996) attempt to reconcile these two influences by proposing an attentional-gate model that apparently seems capable of combining a psy-chobiological "pacemaking mechanism" with cognitive and motivational processes within a single model. These researchers (Zakay & Block, 1997) examine, also, the issue of prospective (the "experience" of duration, "time in passing") versus retrospective (the "memory/remembrance" of duration, "time in retrospect") judgments in the estimation of relatively short durations. They suggest that the two different types of timing involve different cognitive processes requiring separate models, and propose the attentional-gate and contextual-change models, respectively, for prospective and retrospective timing. Additionally, D. Zakay's (1989) re source-allocation model of time estimation generates experimental data that support the hypothesis that prospective timing creates a dual-task condition where magnitude of duration judgments are indica tive of the amount of attentional resources that are allocated for the processing of time/temporal information and data. See also BEHAVIORAL THEORY OF TIMING; BLOCK'S CONTEXTUALISTIC MODEL OF TIME; SCALAR TIMING THEORY; TIME, THEORIES OF. REFERENCES

Luce, R. D., & Green, D. M. (1972). A neural timing theory for response times and the psychophysics of intensity. Psychological Review, 79, 14-57. Poynter, W. D. (1989). Judging the duration of time intervals: A process of remembering segments of experience. In I. Levine & D. Zakay (Eds.), Time and human cognition: A lifespan perspective. Amsterdam, Netherlands: North-Holland. Zakay, D. (1989). Subjective time and atten-tional resource allocation: An integrated model of time estimation. In I. Levine & D. Zakay (Eds.), Time and human cognition: A life-span perspective. Amsterdam, Netherlands: North-Holland. Block, R. (1990). Cognitive models of psychological time. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Brown, S., & West, A. (1990). Multiple timing and the allocation of attention. Acta Psychologica, 75, 103-121. Block, R., & Zakay, D. (1996). Models of psychological time revisited. In H. Helfrich (Ed.), Time and mind. Seattle, WN: Hogrefe & Huber. Zakay, D., & Block, R. (1997). Temporal cognition. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 6, 12-16.

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