Reference

Kant, I. (1790/1892/1914). Critique of judgment. London: Macmillan.

KAPPA- AND TAU-EFFECTS. See TAU-AND KAPPA-EFFECTS.

KARDOS EFFECT. See PERCEPTION (I. GENERAL), THEORIES OF.

KASPAR HAUSER EFFECT/EXPERIMENT. This phenomenon is named after a German teenage boy, Kaspar Hauser (c. 18121833), who suddenly and mysteriously ap peared in the German town of Nuremberg in 1828. Apparently, Hauser was a "feral child" [i.e., an individual/child/infant who is raised, supposedly, by wild animals and has little or no contact or involvement with other humans; cf., "Wild Child/Boy of Aveyron" - a boy, about 10 years old, who was discovered in 1798 by a group of hunters near Aveyron, France; the feral ("wild") child apparently had been abandoned at a young age and was living in the forest, roaming about almost naked, and had no human contact. The child was studied clinically by the French physician Jean Marie Gaspard Itard (1775-1838); an engaging, documentary-type movie - called "L'enfant sauvage" (or the "Wild Child" in the U.S., and the "Wild Boy" in the U.K.) - about the case was made in 1970 by the talented French filmmaker Francois Truffaut (1932-1984); in the film, Truffaut himself plays the role of the doctor who tries to teach language to the boy and to civilize and socialize him]. The Kaspar Hauser experiment/effect refers to a study/ experiment/technique in which an animal is reared in isolation from members of its own species. The British ethologist William Homan Thorpe (1902-1986) conducted such experiments in the 1950s with birds reared in isolation in order to determine which aspects of their songs are "innate" and which ones are "learned." See also EMPIRICIST VERSUS NATIVIST THEORIES; LANGUAGE ACQUISITION THEORY; NATURE VERSUS NURTURE THEORIES; SPEECH THEORIES.

Film Making

Film Making

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