Tolman, E. C. (1932). Purposive behavior in animals and men. New York: Apple-ton-Century-Crofts. Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of behavior. New

York: Appleton-Century-Cro-fts. Amsel, A. (1958). The role of frustrative non-reward in noncontinuous reward situations. Psychological Bulletin, 55, 102-119. Amsel, A. (1962). Frustrative nonreward in partial reinforcement and discrimination learning. Psychological Bulletin, 69, 306-328. Amsel, A. (1992). Frustration theory - many years later. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 396-399.

ANACLITIC THEORY. = anaclitic object-choice theory. A supposition in Freudian psychoanalysis that certain individuals have a strong emotional attachment or dependence on another individual (e.g., the behavior of the infant at its mother's breast). Anaclitic object-

choice refers to a form of object-choice in which the person chooses a "love-object" (instinctual object that helps to attain an instinctual aim) to resemble a parental figure, and is attracted to other people who have the potential for protecting, caring, and feeding him or her. The dynamics in anaclitic theory usually revolve around the notion that the sexual instinct develops initially in individuals regarding the instinct of self-preservation. In the clinical condition known as anaclitic depression, a type of depression (accompanied by crying, apprehension, anorexia, sleep disorders, and withdrawal) is exhibited by infants that is precipitated, typically, by sudden separation ("separation anxiety") from a parent after having had a normal-contact relationship or attachment to the parent for about six months. See also CUPBOARD THEORY; FREUD'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY; GOOD BREAST/OBJECT-BAD BREAST/ OBJECT THEORY; INFANT ATTACH-MENT THEORIES. REFERENCES

Freud, S. (1905). Three essays on the theory of sexuality. In The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 7. London: Hogarth Press. Freud, S. (1914). On narcissism: An introduction. In The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 14. London: Hogarth Press. Spitz, R. A. (1947). Anaclitic depression. In R.

A. Spitz (Ed.), Psychoanalytic studies of the child. Vol. 2. New York: International Universities Press.

ANAGOGIC THEORY. The anagogic (literally, "lifting up") viewpoint is a psychoanalytic proposition exemplified in the analytical approach of the Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), whereby dreams, myths, and other symbolic representations are interpreted on the basis of their elevated or higher allegorical meaning and spiritual significance for the individual. Anagogic theoretical interpretations are considered by many psychologists to be the opposite of ordinary psychoanalytical interpretations where the latter reduce and translate such protocols as dreams and myths into a basic, often sexual, form or content. Sigmund Freud rejected the anagogic interpretations given by Jung and his analytic psychology approach, and considered such interpretations to be merely reversions to "pre-analytic" theoretical modes of content analysis and interpretation. See also FREUD'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY; JUNG'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY.

Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

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