References

London: Murray. Darwin, C. R. (1871). The descent of man.

London: Murray. Millar, D., Millar, I., Millar, J., & Millar, M.

(1996). The Cambridge dictionary of scientists. New York: Cambridge University Press.

WELLS EFFECT. The American psychologist Gary Leroy Wells (1950- ) suggests in the Wells effect that individuals have a reluctance to make judgments of legal liability solely on the basis of "naked" statistical evidence. For example, evidence that is highly reliable (say 80-percent) is sufficient to persuade most people, or to influence their decisions, but "naked" statistical evidence (e.g., evidence having an 80-percent probability) is not sufficient to persuade most people - even though the actual mathematical probability is the same in both instances (i.e., reliable evidence versus statistical evidence). See also DECISION-MAKING THEORIES; EXPECTED UTILITY THEORY; TAXICAB PROBLEM/EFFECT. REFERENCES

Wells, G. L. (1978). Applied eyewitness testimony research: system variables and estimator variables. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 1546-1557. Wells, G. L. (1984). How adequate is human intuition for judging eyewitness testimony? In G. L. Wells & E. F. Loftus (Eds.), Eyewitness testimony: Psychological perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press. Wells, G. L. (1993). What do we know about eyewitness identification? American Psychologist, 48, 553-571. Wells, G. L., & Olson, E. A. (2003). Eyewitness testimony. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 277-295.

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