London: Murray. Darwin, C. R. (1871). The descent of man.

London: Murray. Millar, D., Millar, I., Millar, J., & Millar, M.

(1996). The Cambridge dictionary of scientists. New York: Cambridge University Press.

WELLS EFFECT. The American psychologist Gary Leroy Wells (1950- ) suggests in the Wells effect that individuals have a reluctance to make judgments of legal liability solely on the basis of "naked" statistical evidence. For example, evidence that is highly reliable (say 80-percent) is sufficient to persuade most people, or to influence their decisions, but "naked" statistical evidence (e.g., evidence having an 80-percent probability) is not sufficient to persuade most people - even though the actual mathematical probability is the same in both instances (i.e., reliable evidence versus statistical evidence). See also DECISION-MAKING THEORIES; EXPECTED UTILITY THEORY; TAXICAB PROBLEM/EFFECT. REFERENCES

Wells, G. L. (1978). Applied eyewitness testimony research: system variables and estimator variables. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 1546-1557. Wells, G. L. (1984). How adequate is human intuition for judging eyewitness testimony? In G. L. Wells & E. F. Loftus (Eds.), Eyewitness testimony: Psychological perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press. Wells, G. L. (1993). What do we know about eyewitness identification? American Psychologist, 48, 553-571. Wells, G. L., & Olson, E. A. (2003). Eyewitness testimony. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 277-295.

Brain Blaster

Brain Blaster

Have you ever been envious of people who seem to have no end of clever ideas, who are able to think quickly in any situation, or who seem to have flawless memories? Could it be that they're just born smarter or quicker than the rest of us? Or are there some secrets that they might know that we don't?

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