References

Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Tolman, E. C. (1932). Purposive behavior in animals and men. New York: Ap-pleton-Century-Crofts. Guthrie, E. R. (1935). The psychology of learning. New York: Harper & Row.

Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Cro-fts.

Hull, C. L. (1943). The principles of behavior.

New York: Appleton-Century-Cro-fts.

Harlow, H. (1950). Learning and satiation of response in intrinsically motivated complex puzzle performance in monkeys. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 43, 289-294.

Brown, J. (1953). Comments on Professor Harlow's paper, In Current theory and research in motivation: A symposium. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Butler, R. (1953). Discrimination learning by Rhesus monkeys to visual-exploration motivation. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 46, 95-98. Montgomery, K. (1954). The role of the exploratory drive in learning. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47, 60-64. Premack, D. (1962).Reversibility of the reinforcement relation. Science, 136, 255-257.

Capaldi, E. J. (1966). Partial reinforcement: An hypothesis of sequential effects. Psychological Review, 73, 459-477. Schoenfeld, W. (Ed.) (1970). The theory of reinforcement schedules. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Kassin, S., & Lepper, M. (1984). Oversuffi-cient and insufficient justification effects: Cognitive and behavioral development. Advances in Motivation and Achievement, 3, 73-106. Timberlake, W., & Farmer-Dougan, V.

(1991). Reinforcement in applied settings: Figuring out ahead of time what will work. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 379-391.

REINFORCEMENT, THORNDIKE'S THEORY OF. = spread of effect = Thorn-dike's learning theory. The American psychologist Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949) anticipated the modern theory of reinforcement in his law of effect, where he considered the consequences of a response to be essential to the strengthening of the associative bond between stimulus and response. Thus, according to Thorndike's theory of reinforcement, the "satisfying consequences" (e.g., re-wards or escape from punishment) strengthen a stimulus-response connection, whereas "annoying consequences" (e.g., punish-ers/punishment) weaken the connection. In other terms, Thorndike's spread of effect hypothesis refers to satisfaction or dissatisfaction associated with a response that spreads to other features of the situation; or refers to the effect of "satisfiers" or "annoyers," to other stimuli present at the time of the response, or to stimuli similar in nature to the originally reinforced stimulus ("stimulus generalization"). Thorndike argued that psychology's main goal should be to study behavior (i.e., stimulus-response units; or the S-R learning model/theory that holds that learning is primarily a trial-and-error process in which associative connections between stimuli and responses are established), and not conscious experience or mental elements. His instrumental conditioning approach was to develop the notion of connectionism and the laws of connection; that is, the connections between stimuli/situations and responses, rather than the associations between ideas that were formulated by earlier psychologists and philosophers. Pavlov's law of reinforcement - that was reported four years after Thorndike's law of effect first appeared - resembles Thorndike's theory of reinforcement. Many psychologists consider Thorndike to be the "father" of American learning psychology, and his classical instrumental conditioning experiments, involving animals in "puzzle-boxes" (where the animal learns to get out of a cage-like box, and its behavior is instrumental in receiving food as a consequence), emphasize the "trial-and-error" aspects of learning (also called the irradiation theory), as well as the stimulus-response "connections" that occur by chance and serve to strengthen certain functional behaviors. The term satisfier that Thorndike used in his theory (i.e., a stimulus-response bond or connection is strengthened when the response is followed by a "satisfier") was synonymous with the term reward until later psychologists (e.g., C. L. Hull and B. F. Skinner) advanced arguments for using the term reinforcement over the terms satisfier and reward. Terminology was, and continues to be, an important issue in the area of learning theory development. Thus, although Thorndike's terms satisfier and annoyer may be outdated by the terminology in more current learning theories, it was an empirical advance over the much earlier rational philosophical approach, such as the Aristotelian terms pleasure and pain. Thorn-dike's two-part reinforcement theory - that is, that one learns (retains) whatever responses are followed by satisfiers and does not learn (eliminates) responses that are followed by annoyers - and his laws of learning (i.e., exe-cise, readiness, effect, belongingness, associative shifting) served for many years at the beginning of the 20th century in this country as the basis for educational programs and learning systems. See also ASSOCIATIVE SHIFTING, LAW OF; BELONGINGNESS, PRINCIPLE OF; CONNECTIONISM, THEORY OF; EFFECT, LAW OF; EXERCISE, LAW OF; GENERALIZATION, PRINCIPLES OF; HULL'S LEARNING THEORY; PLEASURE-PAIN, DOCTRINE/THEORY/LAW OF; READINESS, LAW OF; SKINNER'S DESCRIPTIVE BEHAVIOR/OPERANT CONDITIONING THEORY. REFERENCES

Thorndike, E. L. (1898). Animal intelligence: An experimental study of the associative processes in animals. Psychological Review Monograph Supplement, 2, 1-109. Thorndike, E. L. (1907). The elements of psychology. New York: Seiler. Thorndike, E. L. (1932). The fundamentals of learning. New York: Teachers College Press.

Thorndike, E. L. (1933). A theory of the action of the after-effects of a connection upon it. Psychological Review, 40, 434-439. Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

New York: Appleton-Century-Cro-fts.

Bugelski, B. R. (1994). Thorndike's laws of learning. In R. J. Corsini (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology. New York: Wiley.

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