Thorndike, E. L. (1932). Reward and punishment in animal learning. Compara-ative Psychology Monographs, 8, No. 39.

Skinner, B. F. (1938). The behavior of organisms: An experimental analysis. New York: Appleton-Century-Cro-fts.

Estes, W. (1944). An experimental study of punishment. Psychological Monographs, No. 263. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan. Dinsmoor, J. (1954). Punishment. I. The avoidance hypothesis. Psychological Review, 61, 34-46. Dinsmoor, J. (1955). Punishment. II. An interpretation of empirical findings. Psychological Review, 62, 96-105. Mowrer, O. H. (1960). Learning theory and behavior. New York: Wiley. Solomon, R. (1964). Punishment. American

Psychologist, 19, 239-253. Azrin, N., & Holz, W. (1966). Punishment. In W. Honig (Ed.), Operant behavior: Areas of research and application. New York: Appleton-Century-Cro-fts.

Estes, W. (1969). Outline of a theory of punishment. In B. Campbell & R. Church (Eds.), Punishment and aversive behavior. New York: Ap-pleton-Century-Crofts. Dunham, P. (1971). Punishment: Method and theory. Psychological Review, 78, 58-70.

Walters, G., & Grusec, J. (1977). Punishment. San Francisco: Freeman.

PUPILLOMETRICS THEORY. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, the Polish physician Jan Piltz (1870-1931) researched the cortical control of the pupils of the eyes, as well as the symptomatology of nervous disorders, in particular, pupillary symptoms. The term Piltz's reflex refers to a reflexive change in the size of the pupil when attention is fixed suddenly on an event, issue, or object. Piltz suggested that the reflex is mediated by emotional arousal; for instance, positive arousal results in a dilated pupil and negative arousal results in a constricted pupil. In the normal physiological pupillary reflex (or "light reflex"), as studied originally by the Scottish physician Robert Whytt (1714-1766), there is an automatic, involuntary change in the size of the pupil in response to light changes or a change of fixation point. More recently, concerning the psychological (versus physiological) aspects of pupillary changes, the American psychologist Eckhard H. Hess (1916-1986) and his colleague James M. Polt tested the pupil-lometrics theory that large pupils in individuals makes them more attractive to others by asking male participants to rate four photographs of two women. The photos were retouched so that each woman had small pupils in one photo and large pupils in another. The participants were asked to select which woman - in a series of pairs of these photos -appeared to be more friendly, charming, attractive, etc. Hess found that his participants were likely to attribute more of the attractive traits to the women with large pupils. Other studies - using both male and female participants - subsequently replicated Hess' results. See also ACTIVATION/AROUSAL THEORY; VISION/SIGHT, THEORIES OF. REFERENCES

Hess, E. H., & Polt, J. M. (1960). Pupil size as related to interest value of visual stimuli. Science, 132, 349-350. Hess, E. H., & Polt, J. M. (1964). Pupil size in relation to mental activity during simple problem solving. Science, 143, 1190-1192. Hess, E. H. (1965). Attitude and pupil size.

Scientific American, 212, 46-54. Hess, E. H. (1975a). The role of pupil size in communication. Scientific American, 233, 110-119. Hess, E. H. (1975b). The tell-tale eye: How your eyes reveal hidden thoughts and emotions. Oxford, UK: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Tryon, W. W. (1975). Pupillometry: A survey of sources of variation. Psycho-physiology, 12, 90-93. Niedenthal, P. M., & Cantor, N. (1986). Affective responses as guides to category-based influences. Motivation and Emotion, 10, 217-232.

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

The Ultimate Guide To Overcoming Fear And Getting Breakthroughs. Fear is without doubt among the strongest and most influential emotional responses we have, and it may act as both a protective and destructive force depending upon the situation.

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