References

Bain, A. (1873). Mind and body: The theories of their relation. New York: Appleton.

Brentano, F. (1874). Psychologie vom empirischen standpunkt. Leipzig: Dun-ker & Humblot. Baldwin, J. M. (1905). Sketch of the history of psychology. Psychological Review, 12, 144-165. Ryle, G. (1949). The concept of mind. London: Hutchinson. Husserl, E. (1962). Phenomenological psychology. The Hague: Nijhoff. Polten, E. (1973). Critique of the psycho-physical identity theory. The Hague: Mouton.

Cheng, D. (1975). Philosophical aspects of the mind-body problem. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Levin, M. (1979). Metaphysics and the mind-body problem. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

MIND-DUST THEORY. See MIND-BODY THEORIES.

MIND/MENTAL SET, LAW OF. = set, law of. The term set is defined in the present context as a temporary condition of the organism that facilitates a certain specific type of activity; cf., the set-theoretical model, which refers to any model that treats the entities under consideration as elements arranged in a series or aggregate and formally represents the relations between the elements in terms of set theory that may be applied, among other things, to mathematical characterization, semantic features, word meaning, or human long-term memory (cf., resonance theory of learning, proposed by the American psychologist Harry F. Harlow (1905-1981), which holds that items belonging to a certain set are more likely to be recalled/responded to during the time that set is being dealt with). The related terms mental/determining set and perceptual set refer, respectively, to any condition, disposition, or tendency on the organism's part to respond in a particular manner, and to a kind of cognitive readiness for a particular stimulus or class of stimuli (called Einstellung in German). When set is associ ated with a problem-solving or task-oriented situation, the German word Aufgabe ("task") is used to capture the idea that each particular task or set of instructions for performing a particular task carries with it a cluster of constraints indicating the use of particular processes (cf., N. Ach's determining tendency; R. Wheeler refers to the law of Aufgabe). Thus, the law of set/mental set, in a psychological context, refers to a temporary condition of responding that can arise from the task requirements (via overt or covert instructions), context, prior experiences, or expectations (cf., rational principle - refers to a mind set concerning how one intends to solve a problem or determine a fact, such as deciding to use deductive versus inductive reasoning in problem-solving). At higher cognitive levels, set can alter the pattern of information pickup, the nature of what is perceived, and the probability that a particular problem may be solved; (cf., fuzzy set theory, which is the mathematical theory of sets that does not have sharp boundaries and, because most concepts are fuzzy in this sense - for example, "bald," "bad" - some believe the mathematical theory could throw light on cognition). Other ways in which set interacts with cognitive processes are called attentional set, which refers to a condition whereby the observer is prepared to receive information of a particular type (or from a particular channel), and the functional fixedness phenomenon [or functional fixity -first described by the German-born American psychologist Karl Duncker (1903-1940)], which is a conceptual set whereby objects that have been used for one function tend to be viewed as serving only that function, even though the situation may call for the use of the object in a different manner. See also ACH'S LAWS/PRINCIPLES/THEORY; FUZZY SET THEORY; MIND/MENTAL STATES, THEORIES OF; WUNDT'S THEORIES/ DOCTRINES. REFERENCES

Ach, N. (1905). Uber die willenstatigkeit und das denken. Gottingen: Vardenboek. Wheeler, R. (1929). The science of psychology: An introductory study. New York: Crowell.

Duncker, K. (1935/1945). Zur psychologie des produktiven denkens . Psychological Monographs, 58 , No. 5. Gibson, J. (1941). A critical review of the concept of set in contemporary experimental psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 38, 781-817. Luchins, A. (1942). Mechanization in problem solving - The effect of Einstellung. Psychological Monographs, 54, No. 248.

Bruner, J. (1957). On perceptual readiness. Psychological Review, 64, 123-152.

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