McDougall, W. (1905). Physiological psychology. London: Dent. McDougall, W. (1908). An introduction to social psychology. Boston: Luce. Watson, J. B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 20, 158-177. Wilm, E. C. (1925/1971). The theories of instinct: A study in the history of psychology. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Watson, J. B., & McDougall, W. (1929). The battle of behavorism. New York: Norton.

McDougall, W. (1932). Energies of men: A study of the fundamental dynamics of psychology. London: Methuen. Tolman, E. C. (1932). Purposive behavior in animals and men. New York: Ap-pleton-Century-Crofts. Tinbergen, N. (1951). The study of instinct.

New York: Oxford University Press.

McDOUGALL'S THEORY OF HUMOR/ LAUGHTER. The British-born American psychologist William McDougall (1871-1938) developed an instinct theory of humor and laughter whose major premise is the denial that laughter is an expression of pleasure. McDougall claims that all laughter-provoking situations are unpleasant, and actually would be annoying if they were not laughed at (his theory has been referred to as the "anti-annoyance" theory of humor). Thus, McDougall 's theory of humor is in direct contradiction to the scores of theories that view laughter as a proof of joy. According to McDougall, the functions of laughter are various physiological advantages (such as stimulation of circulation and respiration, blood pressure increase, and increase of blood flow to the brain) and psychological benefits (such as an increase in euphoria via the interruption of every train of thought and every sustained physical and mental activity). McDougall's theory indicates that laughter has evolved in the human species as an "antidote to sympathy" or as a protective reaction that shields one from the depressive influence of others' shortcomings and weaknesses. Curiously, Mc-Dougall attaches considerable importance to the topic of tickling in the history of laughter, and suggests that laughter on being tickled is the crudest and earliest form of humor. In admitting laughter to the group of "minor instincts," McDougall maintains that it differs from all other instincts in that its impulse seeks no goal beyond itself, but secures its own satisfaction by means of bodily processes that influence nothing in the external environment. Thus, McDougall's instinct theory of humor asserts that laughter evolved as a necessary corrective of the effects of interpersonal sympathy where the human species might not have survived without laughter and a sense of the ludicrous and humorous. See also DARWIN'S THEORY OF LAUGHTER/ HUMOR; HUMOR, THEORIES OF; LUD-OVICI'S THEORY OF LAUGHTER. REFERENCES

McDougall, W. (1903). The theory of laughter. Nature, 67, 318-319. McDougall, W. (1922). A new theory of laughter. Psyche, 2, 292-303.

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