Jung, C. G. (1913). The theory of psychoanalysis. In The collected works of C. G. Jung. Vol. 4. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Freud, S. (1922). Dreams and telepathy. In The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 18. London: Hogarth Press.

ANAL-EXPULSIVE THEORY. The German psychoanalyst Karl Abraham (1877-1925) expanded on the Freudian anal stage of the theory of psychosexual stages of development by suggesting two phases of the anal stage. In the first phase, "anal erotism" or "eroticism" (i.e., sensuous pleasure derived from stimulation of the anus) is associated with evacuation of the bowels (and the "sadist instinct," or the drive toward cruelty, is satisfied via "feces destruction"); in the second phase (the "anal-retentive" phase), anal erotism/eroticism is linked with retention of the feces (and the "sadist instinct" is associated with "possessive control"). According to the tenets of Abraham's anal-expulsive theory, the successful progression from the first to the second anal phase of the anal stage is critical for the future development of the person's ability to form loving relationships with others. See also FREUD'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY; LIBIDO THEORY.

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