Resource Depletion Theory


RESOURCE DILEMMA MODEL/PARADIGM. = resource management dilemma = resource conservation dilemma = take-some game. This is a useful and practical model of familiar social dilemmas in which conservation of natural resources is a major goal. In general, social dilemma models involve interactive decisions in which personal interests are at odds with collective interests where the pursuit of individual self-interest by every decision-maker leaves everyone else concerned worse off than if each person had acted cooperatively. Social dilemma models are presented, usually, in one of three general forms (N-person prisoner's dilemmas, public goods dilemmas, and resource dilemmas), and have been used, in particular, to study problems such as inflation vis-a-vis voluntary wage restraint, conservation of scarce natural resources, environmental pollution, arms races/ multilateral disarmament, crowd behavior, and other social issues involving trust and cooperation. In the resource dilemma model/paradigm, players harvest resources (typically in the form of tokens that represent money/currency) from a common resource pool of known size, and after each trial/session, the pool is replenished at a predetermined rate. In this model/game, each player is free to choose how much to take from the pool, and it is in each person's self-interest to take as much as possible; however, if everyone behaves in a greedy manner, then the pool becomes exhausted and depleted, and every player suffers as a consequence. In the commons dilemma - a version of resource dilemma [named after a reference made by the English economist William Forster Lloyd (1795-1852) in an essay on population growth, where the parable of the "tragedy of the commons" was the overgrazing of the commons in 14th-century England, and led to the construction of fences and enclosures, resulting in the disappearance of many of the "commons" areas in England] - the issue of overgrazing on a common pasture provides the scenario for cooperation-competition among a group of hypothetical farmers, each requiring grazing space for their cattle. See also CONFLICT, THEORIES OF; DECISION-MAKING, THEORIES OF; HAWK-DOVE AND CHICKEN GAME EF-FECTS. REFERENCES

Lloyd, W. F. (1833). Two lectures on the checks to population. Oxford, UK: University of Oxford Press. Hardin, G. R. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162, 1243-1248. Liebrand, W., Messick, D. M., & Wilke, H. (Eds.) (1992). Social dilemmas: Theoretical issues and research findings. Oxford, UK: Pergamon. Komorita, S. S., & Parks, C. D. (1995). Interpersonal relations: Mixed-motive interaction. Annual Review of Psychology, 46, 183-207. Av, W. T., & Ngai, M. Y. (2003). Effects of group size uncertainty and protocol of play in a common pool resource dilemma. Group Processes and In-tergroup Relations, 6, 265-283.

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

The Ultimate Guide To Overcoming Fear And Getting Breakthroughs. Fear is without doubt among the strongest and most influential emotional responses we have, and it may act as both a protective and destructive force depending upon the situation.

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