Resource Depletion Theory

INTELLIGENCE, THEORIES/LAWS OF.

RESOURCE DILEMMA MODEL/PARADIGM. = resource management dilemma = resource conservation dilemma = take-some game. This is a useful and practical model of familiar social dilemmas in which conservation of natural resources is a major goal. In general, social dilemma models involve interactive decisions in which personal interests are at odds with collective interests where the pursuit of individual self-interest by every decision-maker leaves everyone else concerned worse off than if each person had acted cooperatively. Social dilemma models are presented, usually, in one of three general forms (N-person prisoner's dilemmas, public goods dilemmas, and resource dilemmas), and have been used, in particular, to study problems such as inflation vis-a-vis voluntary wage restraint, conservation of scarce natural resources, environmental pollution, arms races/ multilateral disarmament, crowd behavior, and other social issues involving trust and cooperation. In the resource dilemma model/paradigm, players harvest resources (typically in the form of tokens that represent money/currency) from a common resource pool of known size, and after each trial/session, the pool is replenished at a predetermined rate. In this model/game, each player is free to choose how much to take from the pool, and it is in each person's self-interest to take as much as possible; however, if everyone behaves in a greedy manner, then the pool becomes exhausted and depleted, and every player suffers as a consequence. In the commons dilemma - a version of resource dilemma [named after a reference made by the English economist William Forster Lloyd (1795-1852) in an essay on population growth, where the parable of the "tragedy of the commons" was the overgrazing of the commons in 14th-century England, and led to the construction of fences and enclosures, resulting in the disappearance of many of the "commons" areas in England] - the issue of overgrazing on a common pasture provides the scenario for cooperation-competition among a group of hypothetical farmers, each requiring grazing space for their cattle. See also CONFLICT, THEORIES OF; DECISION-MAKING, THEORIES OF; HAWK-DOVE AND CHICKEN GAME EF-FECTS. REFERENCES

Lloyd, W. F. (1833). Two lectures on the checks to population. Oxford, UK: University of Oxford Press. Hardin, G. R. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162, 1243-1248. Liebrand, W., Messick, D. M., & Wilke, H. (Eds.) (1992). Social dilemmas: Theoretical issues and research findings. Oxford, UK: Pergamon. Komorita, S. S., & Parks, C. D. (1995). Interpersonal relations: Mixed-motive interaction. Annual Review of Psychology, 46, 183-207. Av, W. T., & Ngai, M. Y. (2003). Effects of group size uncertainty and protocol of play in a common pool resource dilemma. Group Processes and In-tergroup Relations, 6, 265-283.

Brain Training Improving Your Memory

Brain Training Improving Your Memory

For as much as we believe we train our brains and give them a good workout, we seldom actually do it on a regular basis. In most cases, our brains are not used in a balanced way. We're creatures of habit. We find a way to do things that we consider comfortable and we seldom change our ways.

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