Schizophrenogenic Parent Mother Hypothesis See Schizophrenia Theories Of

SCHOPENHAUER'S THEORY OF HUMOR. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) proposed - much like Immanuel Kant earlier - an incongruity theory of humor. Whereas Kant located the essence of humor in the "evaporation of an expectation," Schopenhauer located it in a "mismatch" between one's sensory knowledge and one's abstract knowledge of things. According to Schopenhauer, what one perceives through the senses are individual aspects with many characteristics, but when the person organizes his/her sense perceptions under abstract concepts the focus is only on a few characteristics of any individual aspect/thing. This practice allows one to lump very different things under the same concept, and to refer to very different things by the same word. Schopenhauer's theory of humor suggests that humor arises when one is struck by some clash between a concept and a perception that are "supposed" to be of the same thing. It may be noted, also, that Schopenhauer's theory of humor is a "sudden contrast theory of laughter" (cf., Hobbes' sudden glory theory) - in addition to being an incongruity theory - in which the cause of laughter in every case is simply the sudden perception of the incongruity between a concept and the real objects that have been thought through in some relation, and laughter itself is just the expression of such an incongruity. Additionally, Schopenhauer divides the notion of the ludicrous into two species: wit and folly. Wit is viewed as the case in which one has previously known two or more very different real objects (ideas of sense-percep tion) and has identified them intentionally through the identity of a concept that comprehends them both. On the other hand, folly is seen as the case in which one starts with a concept under which two objects are subsumed, and the difference between them that the person perceives suddenly. Thus, according to Schopenhauer, every ludicrous thing is either a flash of wit or a foolish action, based on whether the sequence goes from the discrepancy of the objects to the identity of the concept, or vice-versa. Schopenhauer asserts that the reason for one's enjoyment of the ludicrous lies in the primacy of the "will," or as he suggests epigrammatically, "No will: no idea, no world." Essentially, in Schopenhauer's view, one's pleasure at the ludicrous arises from the "victory" of knowledge of perception over that of thought. See also HOBBES' THEORY OF HUMOR/LAUGHTER; HUMOR, THEORIES OF; INCONGRUITY/ INCONSISTENCY THEORIES OF HUMOR; KANT'S THEORY OF HUMOR/ LAUGHTER. REFERENCE

Schopenhauer, A. (1819/1906). The world as will and idea. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

The Ultimate Guide To Overcoming Fear And Getting Breakthroughs. Fear is without doubt among the strongest and most influential emotional responses we have, and it may act as both a protective and destructive force depending upon the situation.

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