Selfish Gene Hypothesis

MENDEL'S LAWS/PRINCIPLES.

SELF-MONITORING THEORY/METHOD. In the area of education/learning, the procedure of self-monitoring (S-M) refers to the process of discriminating target behaviors - paying deliberate attention to some aspect of one's behavior - and related events, and is an important component of self-regulated (i.e., independent, self-motivated) thinking and learning. The social psychological construct of S-M (i.e., observation and control of expressive behavior and self-presentation) was introduced into psychology in 1974 by the American-based Canadian social psychologist Mark Snyder (1947- ), who found that high self-monitors regulate their expressive self-presentation and are highly responsive to social and interpersonal cues to situationally appropriate behavior, whereas low self-monitoring individuals lack such abilities or motivations. S-M requires the person to attend selectively to specific actions or cognitive processes, to distinguish them from other actions/processes, and to discriminate their outcomes. Although there is good agreement among theorists regarding the overt features of S-M, psychologists differ in their descriptions of various covert psychological dimensions. Thus, for example, information-processing theorists view S-M within a cybernetic system consisting of several stages: sensory environmental input (perception), comparison with a standard/corrective behavior, and behavioral outcome. In contrast to this approach concerning covert decision-making, cognitive-behavioral theorists emphasize the need for overt forms of S-M, such as self-recording, as tools for adapting both covert cognitions and overt behaviors to environmental conditions [cf., the Coué method/theory - named after the French pharmacist and proponent of "autosuggestion" Emile Coué (1857-1926) - that aims at self-improvement, as well as attempting to cure physical diseases, by regularly repeating words over and over to oneself, such as "Every day in every way, I am getting better and better"]. Metacognitive theorists conceive of S-M in terms of meta-awareness and meta-control of knowledge and of cognitive experiences and strategies; and social-cognitive theorists stress the importance and inter-dependence of all three major forms of S-M: cognitive, behavioral, and environmental. See also COGNITIVE THERAPY, THEORIES OF; INFORMA-

TION/INFORMATION-PRO-CESSING THEORY; SELF-CONCEPT THEORY; SOCIAL LEARNING/COGNIT-ION THEORIES.

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