Selfish Gene Hypothesis


SELF-MONITORING THEORY/METHOD. In the area of education/learning, the procedure of self-monitoring (S-M) refers to the process of discriminating target behaviors - paying deliberate attention to some aspect of one's behavior - and related events, and is an important component of self-regulated (i.e., independent, self-motivated) thinking and learning. The social psychological construct of S-M (i.e., observation and control of expressive behavior and self-presentation) was introduced into psychology in 1974 by the American-based Canadian social psychologist Mark Snyder (1947- ), who found that high self-monitors regulate their expressive self-presentation and are highly responsive to social and interpersonal cues to situationally appropriate behavior, whereas low self-monitoring individuals lack such abilities or motivations. S-M requires the person to attend selectively to specific actions or cognitive processes, to distinguish them from other actions/processes, and to discriminate their outcomes. Although there is good agreement among theorists regarding the overt features of S-M, psychologists differ in their descriptions of various covert psychological dimensions. Thus, for example, information-processing theorists view S-M within a cybernetic system consisting of several stages: sensory environmental input (perception), comparison with a standard/corrective behavior, and behavioral outcome. In contrast to this approach concerning covert decision-making, cognitive-behavioral theorists emphasize the need for overt forms of S-M, such as self-recording, as tools for adapting both covert cognitions and overt behaviors to environmental conditions [cf., the Coué method/theory - named after the French pharmacist and proponent of "autosuggestion" Emile Coué (1857-1926) - that aims at self-improvement, as well as attempting to cure physical diseases, by regularly repeating words over and over to oneself, such as "Every day in every way, I am getting better and better"]. Metacognitive theorists conceive of S-M in terms of meta-awareness and meta-control of knowledge and of cognitive experiences and strategies; and social-cognitive theorists stress the importance and inter-dependence of all three major forms of S-M: cognitive, behavioral, and environmental. See also COGNITIVE THERAPY, THEORIES OF; INFORMA-


Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

Conquering Fear In The 21th Century

The Ultimate Guide To Overcoming Fear And Getting Breakthroughs. Fear is without doubt among the strongest and most influential emotional responses we have, and it may act as both a protective and destructive force depending upon the situation.

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