Social Motion Law Of See Murphys Laws

SOCIAL PENETRATION THEORY. See

EXCHANGE/SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY.

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL DUAL-PROCESS MODELS. The basic implicit assumption underlying the early dual-process models in social-perception and cognition was a concern over whether certain biases in personal judgment, choices, and decision-making were the result of "bounded rationality," that is, whether human cognitive capacities and decision-making choices are strictly rational or not. Such a general theoretical duality (rationality versus non-rationality in decision-makers) was productive in its generation of empirical research in social psychology beginning in the 1930s and 1940s. See also ALLPORT'S CONFORMITY HYPOTHESIS; ASCH CONFORMITY EFFECT; BOUNDED RATIONALITY PRINCIPLE; BYSTANDER INTERVENTION EFFECT; DECISION-MAKING THEORIES; DEIN-DIVIDUATION THEORY; DUAL-PROCESS MODELS. REFERENCES

Deutsch, M., & Krauss, R. M. (1965). Theories in social psychology. New York: Basic Books. Liberman, A. M. (2001). Exploring the boundaries of rationality: A functional perspective on dual-process models in social psychology. In G. B. Moskowitz (Ed.), Cognitive social psychology: The Princeton Symposium on the legacy and future of social cognition. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

SOCIAL SCIENCES, LAW OF THE. See

SOCIAL SELECTION THEORY OF PATHOLOGY. See SCHIZOPHRENIA, THEORIES OF.

SOCIAL SMILE THEORY. See FACIAL FEEDBACK HYPOTHESIS.

SOCIAL STRESS THEORIES OF PATHOLOGY. See PSYCHOPATHOLOGY, THEORIES OF.

SOCIAL-STRESS THEORY. See SELYE'S THEORY/MODEL OF STRESS.

SOCIETAL PROGRESS THEORY. See

COMMUNICATION THEORY.

SOCIETAL-REACTION THEORY. See

LABELING/DEVIANCE THEORY.

SOCIODRAMA/PSYCHODRAMA. See

MORENO'S SOCIAL GROUP TECHNIQUES/THEORY.

SOCIOGENIC HYPOTHESIS. See PSY-CHOPATHOLOGY, THEORIES OF.

SOCIOGRAM/SOCIOMETRY. See MORENO'S SOCIAL GROUP TECHNIQUES/ THEORY.

SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY OF COMMUNICATION. See COMMUNICATION THEORY.

SOFT/HARD DETERMINISM, DOCTRINE OF. See DETERMINISM, DOCTRINE/THEORY OF.

SOLIPSISTIC DOCTRINE. See MIND/ MENTAL STATES, THEORIES OF.

SOLOMON'S OPPONENT-PROCESS THEORY OF EMOTIONS/FEELINGS/ MOTIVATION. The American psychologist Richard Lester Solomon (1918-1995) formulated a theory that applies a homeostatic (i.e., a state of physiological equilibrium, balance, or stability) model to the experience of emotion where it is assumed that emotions have hedonic value. That is, they vary in their ability to be unpleasant or pleasant. Solomon's opponent-process theory states that an emotional response will be followed in a short time by its hedonic opposite. For instance, if one currently feels anger, it will give way to a feeling of calm shortly; if one feels fear, it will give way to relief; and if one feels depression, it will give way to euphoria. It is a major test of Solomon's opponent-process theory that the brain automatically activates opposing, or opponent, processes in order to protect itself from emotional extremes and, further, to re store a state of equilibrium to the individual. In most cases, the states of emotional oppo-sites are of roughly the same intensity so that they balance out each other. Solomon's theory proposes, however, that when the same stimulus or event repeatedly elicits the same emotion, the first reaction will gradually weaken in intensity, with the overall result of the opponent reaction's gaining in strength. The opponent-process theory suggests that the eventual dominance achieved by the opponent emotional states can explain why some individuals may engage in risky and thrill-seeking behaviors such as high-stakes gambling, running dangerous river rapids, or skydiving. See also EMOTIONS, THEORIES/LAWS OF; HEDONISM, THEORY/LAW OF; MOTIVATION, THEORIES OF; OPPONENT-PROCESS COLOR VISION THEORY. REFERENCES

Solomon, R. L., & Corbit, J. (1974). An opponent-process theory of motivation. I. Temporal dynamics of affect. PsychologicalReview, 81, 119-145. Solomon, R. L. (1980). The opponent-process theory of acquired motivation: The costs of pleasure and benefits of pain. American Psychologist, 35, 691-712.

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