Statistical Hypothesis See Null Hypothesis

STATISTICAL LEARNING THEORY. See CAPALDI'S THEORY; ESTES' STIMULUS SAMPLING THEORY.

STATUE OF CONDILLAC. See CONDIL-LAC'S THEORY OF ATTENTION.

ST. AUGUSTINE'S TIME THEORY AND PARADOX. In his paradox of time, the African-born philosopher and theologian St. Augustine (A.D. 354-430) questioned - concerning the proposition that things in time change in time - whether things actually change in time or do they merely appear to change because we move in time, and suggested that if we move in time, then we change in time. In grappling with the concept of time, the novelty of St. Augustine's perspective consists in the transference of the reference of time from the "world-soul" to the "human-soul" - even as he continued to regard time as an objective, divinely-created fact. Although St. Augustine considered time as being in the soul or mind, he maintained that time is inconceivable apart from the universe. According to St. Augustine, time implies a universe containing motion and change, and a soul/mind that exists in its own right. Although St. Augustine failed to explain how the mind is an accurate chronometer for the external order of physical events, he is credited as being the great pioneer of the study of internal time. By a process of agonizing introspection (e.g., when asked what is time, St. Augustine replied that he knows what it is, but confesses that no sooner is the question asked than the answer escapes him), St. Augustine arrived at the idea that time, by its very nature, is subjective. See also ARISTOTLE'S TIME THEORY AND PARADOX; PLOTINUS' THEORY OF TIME; TIME, THEORIES OF. REFERENCES

Zeman (Ed.), Time in science and philosophy: An international study of some current problems. New York: Elsevier. Whitrow, G. J. (1980). The natural philosophy of time. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.

Meagher, R. (1994). Augustine (354-430). In S. Macey (Ed.), Encyclopedia of time. New York: Garland.

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