Steadystate Theories See Time Theories Of

STEINZOR EFFECT. This effect from the area of group dynamics, named after the American therapist and social/cognitive psychologist Bernard Steinzor (dates unknown), states that in a group setting there is a tendency for group members to comment immediately following the comments of the person sitting opposite them. According to the Stein-zor effect, in groups consisting of minimal leadership, members of a discussion group address most remarks to colleagues sitting across a conference table, whereas with a strong leader no spatial effect is observed. The Steinzor effect also reveals a link between eye contact and dominance. Thus, one may find it difficult to gaze directly at, or even to cross lines of sight with, a dominant individual seated nearby at the same discussion table. In task discussions, people direct more comments to those seated across from them in a circle or at a table, whereas in social discussions, they are most likely to talk to the person seated next to them. In a small group seated in a circle, the greater the seating distance between two people, the greater the chance that they will follow one another verbally. Thus, according to the Steinzor effect, location and seating arrangements appear to play a key role in group dynamics and personal interactions. See also INTERPERSONAL ATTRACTION THEORIES; PERSONAL SPACE THEORY; PROXEMICS. REFERENCES

Steinzor, B. (1950). The spatial factor in face to face discussion groups. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 45, 552-555. Sommer, R. (1959). Studies in personal space.

Sociometry, 22, 247-260. Sommer, R. (1962). The distance for comfortable conversation: A further study. Sociometry, 25, 111-116.

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