Talbotplateau Spiral See Appendix A

TALION LAW/PRINCIPLE. See FREUD'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY.

TARCHANOFF EFFECT/PHENOMENON. See ELECTRODERMAL ACTIVITY/ PHENOMENON.

TASK CYCLE THEORY. See TOLMAN'S THEORY.

TASTE AVERSION EFFECT. See GARCIA EFFECT.

TASTE, THEORIES OF. See GUSTATION/TASTE, THEORIES OF.

TA-TA/SING-SONG THEORIES. See

LANGUAGE ORIGINS, THEORIES OF.

TAU- AND KAPPA-EFFECTS. The tau-effect was first discovered in tactile experiments where a participant makes a comparative judgment of two spatial intervals when the corresponding temporal intervals vary. For instance, if three points are marked off on the participant's skin such that the interval of time between stimulating the second and third points exceeds the interval between stimulating the first and second points, the person reports that the distance between the second and third points is greater than that between the first and second points. A similar effect of a relation between perceived space and time is shown when visual or auditory signals replace the tactile. For example, with vision, by flashing three equidistant lights X, Y, and Z successively in the dark with a shorter time interval between X and Y than between Y and Z, the space-time tau-effect/illusion is created that X and Y are closer together in space than is Y and Z. The converse kappa-effect holds, as well. For instance, when auditory signals are used, a shorter duration is assigned by the participant to the higher of two tones when he/ she is required to adjust them so that they seem to be temporally equal. The kappa-effect/illusion may be observed, also, with the visual modality. For example, if three light sources, X, Y, and Z, are placed at different positions, with X and Y closer together than Y and Z, and the lights are flashed successively in the dark - with equal time intervals between the three flashes - the space-time kappa-effect/illusion is created such that the time interval between the X and Y lights is perceived to be shorter than that between the Y and Z lights. See also APPARENT MOVEMENT, PRINCIPLES AND THEORIES OF; TIME, THEORIES OF. REFERENCES

Helson, H. (1930). The tau-effect: An example of psychological relativity. Science, 71, 536-537. Cohen, J., Hansel, C., & Sylvester, J. (1955).

Interdependence in judgments of space, time, and movement. Acta Psychologica, 11, 360-372. Jones, B., & Huang, Y. (1982). Space-time dependencies in psychophysical judgment of extent and duration: Algebraic models of the tau and kappa effects. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 128-142.

TAXICAB PROBLEM/EFFECT. The Israeli-American cognitive psychologists Amos Tversky (1937-1996) and Daniel Kahneman (1934- ) identify the so-called base-rate fallacy (i.e., the failure to take account of the "prior probability/base-rate" of an event when subjectively judging its "conditional probability") in the taxicab problem/effect of probability judgment. The problem states that a city taxicab was involved in a hit-and-run accident at night. Only the "Blue Cab" and "Green Cab" companies (where 15-percent are Blue Cabs and 85-percent are Green Cabs) operate in the city. An eyewitness to the accident claimed that the cab in question was blue (also, the witness was tested and gave an 80-percent correct judgment of blue and green cabs). The taxicab problem poses the question, "What is the probability that the cab involved was blue?" The participants' median and modal judgment was 80-percent - that agrees with the reliability of the tested witness - but ignores the "relative frequency" or "base-rate" of cabs (i.e., 85-percent Green Cabs and 15-percent Blue Cabs). Tversky and Kahneman state that the correct answer to the question - worked out using Bayes' theorem -is 41-percent probability, which is actually closer to the base-rate of cabs than to the 80-percent reliability estimates of the eyewitness.

See also BA YES' THEOREM; DECISIONMAKING THEORIES; EXPECTED UTILITY THEORY; PROBABILITY THEORY/LAWS; WELLS EFFECT. REFERENCES

Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1973). On the psychology of prediction. Psychological Review, 80, 237-251. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgments under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 11241131.

Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1981). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211, 453-458.

Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1988). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. In P. Gaerderfors & N.-E. Sahlin (Eds.), Decision, probability, and utility: Selected read-ings. New York: Cambridge Univer-sity Press.

TAYLOR SYSTEM/THEORY. See ORGANIZATIONAL/INDUSTRIAL/SYSTEMS THEORY.

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