Transference Principle

THIRD EAR HYPOTHESIS.

TRANSFER OF TRAINING, THORN-DIKE'S THEORY OF. = identical elements/ components theory. In general, the topic of transfer of training refers to the situation where something learned in one task (e.g., learning to fly a helicopter) may be carried over ("transferred") to another task (e.g., learning to fly a jet aircraft) and where the transfer may either facilitate of inhibit the learning of the second task. Transfer of training is attributed, often, to the existence of "identical elements or components" in the two functions/situations or to the process of generalization (cf., instance/episode/exemplar theory, which holds that memory and knowledge systems are built up directly on the basis of specific instances or episodes in one's experience; this theory is contrasted, typically, with abstraction/prototype theory, which argues that memory/knowledge is built up by processes of abstract information that is extracted from specific episodes that one experiences; the identifiability principle is the conjecture that it is easier to learn to make responses to events when the elements contained in one event or situation are easily identified and distinguished from the other elements; and the response-by-analogy principle states that any animal or human - who is in a new or unfamiliar setting and must respond to the demands of the new environment - will respond in a way that is similar to the way it had responded previously in a familiar or similar situation). Early accounts of the operation of transfer of training emphasized the faculty (i.e., a power or agency of the mind such as feeling, will, intellect) that was involved in the learning situation. The historic school/system of psy chology called faculty psychology, and mental-faculty theory, approached the study of the human mind by attempting to account for mental processes in terms of a fixed number of such "faculties." A faculty was defined in such a broad manner as to cover all the operations of memory and observation and was supposed to be strengthened by exercise on any sort of material. In an educational theory context, the theory of faculty training holds that training to learn one set of materials (e.g., learning Latin) prepares one to excel on another set of materials (e.g., learning English). Although largely discredited today, faculty psychology has recently been revived under the modularity hypothesis/theory where the existence of cognitive and perceptual modules (e.g., a language module; a numerical module) are hypothesized. The American psychologist Edward Lee Thorndike's (1874-1949) pioneer experimental work in 1903 was in opposition to the postulates of the traditional faculty theory. Thorndike proposed that transfer of material was possible only so far as identical elements or components of behavior could be carried over from one learning task to another one. Thorndike and R. S. Woodworth (1901) conducted transfer experiments that attacked a correlate of the faculty theory called the doctrine of formal discipline (i.e., the educational approach that suggests that some courses should be studied - independently of the content that they might have - because they serve generally to "train the mind"). The transfer effects that Thorndike and Woodworth found were due to specific methods, habits, and ideas that were carried over from the practice tasks that were given previously. Their conclusions were that improvements in performance were due to definite factors (rather than general tendencies), and these definite factors comprised "common" or "identical" elements. Thorndike consistently held that a change in one function alters any other function only insofar as the two functions have identical elements as factors. In more recent times, psychologists seem to prefer the term common factors over the term identical elements, but Thorndike's identical elements/components approach to transfer of training still serves as a useful prescription that points toward features and factors that are definite and concrete vis-

à-vis the cause of any observed transfer effect. See also EFFECT, LAW OF; FORMAL DISCIPLINE/TRAINING, THEORY AND DOCTRINE OF; GENERALIZATION, PRINCIPLES OF; MIND/MENTAL STATES, THEORIES OF; OSGOOD'S TRANSFER SURFACE AND MODEL; REINFORCEMENT, THORNDIKE'S THEORY OF; SKAGGS-ROBINSON HYPOTHESIS. REFERENCES

The influence of improvement in one mental function upon the efficiency of other functions. Psychological Review, 8, 247-261, 384395,553-564. Thorndike, E. L. (1903). Educational psychology. New York: Lemcke & Buechner.

Orata, P. (1928). The theory of identical elements, being a critique of Thorn-dike's theory of identical elements and a reinterpretation of the problem of transfer of training. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. Bruce, R. (1933). Conditions of transfer of training. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 16, 343-361. Gibson, E. (1953). Improvement in perceptual judgments. Psychological Bulletin, 50, 401-431. Osgood, C. E. (1953). Method and theory in experimental psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.

TRANSFORMATIONAL THEORY OF

LANGUAGE. See CHOMSKY'S PSYCHO-LINGUISTIC THEORY.

TRANSFORMATION THEORY. See

DARWIN'S EVOLUTION THEORY.

TRANSGENERATIONAL HYPOTHESIS.

See LABELING/DEVIANCE THEORY.

TRANSMETHYLATION HYPOTHESIS.

See MENDEL'S LAWS/PRINCIPLES.

TRANSMIGRATION THEORY. See LIFE, THEORIES OF.

TRANSPOSITION, THEORY OF. See

DELAYED-REACTION MODEL/PARADIGM; SPENCE'S THEORY.

TRANSSITUATIONALITY PRINCIPLE.

See REINFORCEMENT THEORY.

TRAPEZOIDAL/AMES WINDOW. See

APPENDIX A.

TRAVELING WAVE THEORY. See

AUDITION/HEARING, THEORIES OF.

TREISMAN'S FEATURE INTEGRATION THEORY. See PATTERN/OBJECT RECOGNITION THEORY.

TRIAL AND ERROR, LAW OF. See CONDUCT, LAWS OF.

TRIAL AND ERROR THEORY OF LEARNING. See LEARNING, THEORIES OF.

TRICHROMATIC THEORY. See COLOR VISION, THEORIES/LAWS OF; YOUNG-HELMHOLTZ COLOR VISION THEORY.

TRICOMPONENT MODEL OF ATTITUDE. See ATTITUDE AND ATTITUDE CHANGE, THEORIES OF.

TRIDIMENSIONAL THEORY OF FEELING. See WUNDT'S THEORIES/DOCTRINES/PRINCIPLES.

TRIPARTITE PERSONALITY THEORY.

See BERNE'S SCRIPT THEORY; FREUD'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY.

TRIPLE-CODE MODEL. See MOTOR LEARNING/PROCESS THEORIES; NEW STRUCTURALISM THEORY/PARADIGM.

TRIPLE-RECEPTOR THEORY. See FO-

VEAL CONE HYPOTHESIS.

TROPISM THEORY. See LOEB'S TROPISTIC THEORY.

TROXLER EFFECT. See VISION/SIGHT, THEORIES OF.

TULVING-WISEMAN LAW. This psychological law - named after the Estonia-born Canadian cognitive/experimental psychologist Endel Tulving (1927- ) and his colleague Sandor Wiseman - describes the functional relationship between recognition memory and recall in experiments in which the same participants are given two memory tests successively on the same verbal items. When the "recognition-failure" data from many such experiments are graphed in a particular way, the dependency between recognition and recall appears to be largely invariant over studies in that the data points can be approximated closely by a simple equation. This result is called the Tulving-Wiseman law, and the law or function may be expressed as follows: P(RN|RL) = P(RN) + c[P(RN)-P(RN)2], where P(RN|RL) is the probability of recognition given recall, and P(RN) is the unconditional probability of recognition. In a typical successive-testing, recognition memory/recall experiment, participants study a list of A-B word pairs and then are tested twice, first for recognition of the B targets and then for recall of B when cued with A items. Subsequently, data are analyzed where each participant-item combination is tallied in a 2x2 contingency table according to success or failure on the recall test; finally, data are plotted on a scatter diagram and characteristically demonstrate an invariant relation between recognition and recall as predicted by the Tulving-Wiseman law. See also ENCODING SPECIFICITY HYPOTHESIS/PRINCIPLE; FORGETTING/ MEMORY, THEORIES OF. REFERENCES

Tulving, E., & Wiseman, S. (1975). Relation between recognition and recognition failure of recallable words. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 6, 7982.

Hintzman, D. L. (1992). Mathematical constraints and the Tulving-Wiseman law. Psychological Review, 99, 536542.

Tulving, E., & Flexser, A. J. (1992). On the nature of the Tulving-Wiseman function. Psychological Review, 99, 543-546.

Flexser, A. J., & Tulving, E. (1993). Recognition-failure constraints and the aver-

age maximum. Psychological Review, 100, 149-153. Sikstrom, S. P., & Gardiner, J. M. (1997).

Remembering, knowing, and the Tulving-Wiseman law. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 9, 167-185.

TURING'S TEST/MACHINE. See CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL.

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