Universal Law Of Gravitation

See UNIVERSAL LAW OF GENERALIZATION.

UNIVERSAL MODEL OF HUMAN EMOTIONS. The American neurologist/ physician Antonio R. Damasio (1994) developed a universal model of human emotions that is based on a rejection of the Cartesian mind-body dualism, and is founded on neuropsychological studies and experiments. The model begins with the assumption that human knowledge consists of dispositional representations stored in the brain (where "thought" is the process by which such representations are ordered and manipulated). One of the representations is of the body as a whole and is based on information from the endocrine and peripheral nervous systems. In his model, Damasio defines emotion as the combination of a mental evaluative process (simple or complex) with dispositional responses to that process, resulting in an emotional body state -but also toward the brain itself (e.g., via neu-rotransmitter nuclei in the brain stem). In distinguishing "emotions" from "feelings," Damasio states that the brain is continually monitoring changes in the body, and suggests that people "feel" an emotion when they experience such changes in juxtaposition to the mental images that initiated the cycle. The model distinguishes, also, between "primary emotions" (innate) and "secondary emotions" (feelings allowing one to form systematic connections between categories of objects and situations). Damasio suggests that the neurological mechanisms of emotion and feeling evolved in humans in order to create strong biases to situationally-appropriate behaviors that do not require conscious thought; he argues that the time-consuming process of rational thought may decrease one's chances of survival in situations that require instant decisions. See also EMOTIONS, THEORIES/ LAWS OF; MIND-BODY THEORIES. REFERENCE

Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes' error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Putnam.

UNLEARNING HYPOTHESIS. See INTERFERENCE THEORIES.

UNREADINESS, LAW OF. See READINESS, LAW OF.

Brain Training Improving Your Memory

Brain Training Improving Your Memory

For as much as we believe we train our brains and give them a good workout, we seldom actually do it on a regular basis. In most cases, our brains are not used in a balanced way. We're creatures of habit. We find a way to do things that we consider comfortable and we seldom change our ways.

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