Zollnerpoggendorff Illusion

See APPENDIX A.

ZOMBIISM THEORY. The phenomenon of zombiism (i.e., a corpse-like/robot-like human being believed to belong to the "living dead," who is buried alive and resurrected by witchdoctors in order to carry out their directives, existing in particular in the voodoo cult of Haiti and various West African religions) has been studied by the Irish-Canadian ethnobi-ologist E. Wade Davis (1953- ). In his zom-biism theory, Davis suggests that in the secret cult activities the ingestion by the victim of a barely sub-lethal dosage of a poison/magic powder (consisting of such substances as pufferfish and other ingredients containing the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin) results in a deep coma resembling death. The witchcraft ceremonies also typically involve a live burial where, along with the poison, extensive neurological damage usually occurs in the victim. Later, when the victim is exhumed/revived, he or she typically has few intact memories or mental capacities, shows no coherent speech, demonstrates a shuffling gait, and has a blank facial expression stereotypical of a "zombie" who is now ready to carry out the biddings of the sorcerer/priest/witchdoctor in charge of the social group or community. Scientific observers of behaviors in primitive cultures, of course, are quick to point out that some apparently zombie-like individuals are simply unfortunate persons with severe/profound mental retardation, and not necessarily victims of a cultish ceremony conducted to create zombies. See also CULTURE-BOUND PHENOMENA/EFFECTS; LABELING/DEVIANCE THEORY; PSYCHOPATHOLOGY, THEORIES OF. REFERENCE

Davis, E. W. (1985/1997). The serpent and the rainbow. New York: Simon & Schuster.

ZONE/STAGE THEORIES OF COLOR VISION. Zone- or stage-theories of color vision include several theories that give separate accounts of the processes at various stages or levels of the visual mechanism, such as receptor-, retina-, and optic nerve fiber-levels. Examples of the zone/stage theories of color vision include propositions by J. von Kries, E. Schrodinger, G. E. Muller, E. Q. Adams, and D. B. Judd. All of these complex stage theories employ the German physiologist Ewald Hering's (1834-1918) original notion of opposing components in the description of the final stage. See also COLOR VISION, THEORIES/LAWS; HERING-HUR-VICH-JAMESON COLOR VISION THEORY.

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